A Comparative Study of 316L Stainless Steel and a Titanium Alloy in an Aggressive Biological Medium


  • D. Aroussi Ecole Nationale Polytechnique d’Oran, Algeria
  • B. Aour Ecole Nationale Polytechnique d’Oran, Algeria
  • A. S. Bouaziz Ecole Nationale Polytechnique d’Oran, Algeria
Volume: 9 | Issue: 6 | Pages: 5093-5098 | December 2019 | https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3208


The electrochemical behavior of stainless steel and titanium alloys is affected after prolonged contact with basic or acidic solutions, indicating a change in their surface properties. The human body often rejects invasive devices that aim to alter the biological or chemical composition of blood or other body fluids. Stents, fixation plates and screws, spinal implant devices, aneurysm clips, intramedullary nails and stems, temporary fixation devices and surgical instruments, etc. have been made from stainless steel AISI 316L for several years. Although the mechanical performance of implants and devices may be governed by their bulk properties, their interaction with the environment is managed by the characteristics of their superficial layer. In the case of biomedical devices, resistance to corrosion and biocompatibility has paramount importance. This study compares the corrosion behavior of 316L stainless steel and a titanium alloy in a Hank solution. The obtained results show that the titanium alloy has a higher potential than 316L stainless steel and lower corrosion current.


corrosion, 316L stainless steel, titanium, passivation, biocompatibility


Download data is not yet available.


B. D. Ratner, A. S. Hoffman, F. J. Schoen, J. E. Lemons, Biomaterials science, Academic Press, 2004

L. L. Hench, E. C. Ethridge, “Biomaterials: the interfacial problem”, Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 5, pp. 35-150, 1975 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-004905-9.50007-4

H. J. Ronold, S. P. Lyngstadaas, J. E. Ellingsen, “Analysing the optimal value for titanium implant roughness in bone attachment using a tensile test”, Biomaterials, Vol. 24, No. 25, pp. 4559-4564, 2003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0142-9612(03)00256-4

A. L. Rosa, M. M. Beloti, “Effect of cpTi surface roughness on human bone marrow cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation”, Brazilial Dental Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 16-21, 2003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-64402003000100003

D. Kuroda, T. Hanawa, S. Hiromoto, Y. Katada, K. Asami, “Chararcterization of the surface oxide film of nickel-free austenitic stainless steel located in simulated body environments”, Materials Transactions, Vol. 43, No. 12, pp. 3093-3099, 2002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2320/matertrans.43.3093

M. Fini, N. N. Aldini, P. Torricelli, G. Giavaresi, V. Borsari, H. Lenger, J. Bernauer, R. Giardino, R. Chiesa, A. Cigada, “A new austenitic stainless steel with negligible nickel content: An in vitro and in vivo comparative investigation”, Biomaterials, Vol. 24, No. 27, pp. 4929-4939, 2003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0142-9612(03)00416-2

P. Torricelli, M. Fini, V. Borsari, H. Lenger, J. Bernauer, M. Tschon, V. Bonazzi, R. Giardino, “Biomaterials in orthopedic surgery: Effects of a nickel-reduced stainless steel on in vitro proliferation and activation of human osteoblasts”, The International Journal of Artificial Organs, Vol. 26, No. 10, pp. 952-957, 2003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/039139880302601013

M. Xiao, Y. M. Chen, M. N. Biao, X. D. Zhang, B. C. Yang, “Bio-functionalization of biomedical metals”, Materials Science and Engineering: C, Vol. 70, No. 2, pp. 1057–1070, 2017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2016.06.067

H. Hermawan, D. Ramdan, J. Djuansjah, “Metals for biomedical applications”, in: R. Fazel-Rezai (Ed.), Biomedical Engineering – From Theory to Applications, InTech Publications, 2011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5772/19033

M. Niinomi, M. Nakai, J. Hieda, “Development of new metallic alloys for biomedical applications”, Acta Biomaterialia, Vol. 8, No. 11, pp. 3888–3903, 2012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2012.06.037

H. Zhang, J. Han, Y. Sun, Y. Huang, M. Zhou, “MC3T3-E1 cell response to stainless steel 316L with different surface treatments”, Materials Science and Engineering: C, Vol. 56, pp. 22–29, 2015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2015.06.017

M. Niinomi, “Fatigue performance and cyto-toxicity of low rigidity titanium alloy, Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr”, Biomaterials, Vol. 24, No. 16, pp. 2673–2683, 2003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0142-9612(03)00069-3

A. W. El-Morsey, “Wear analysis of a Ti-5Al-3V-2.5Fe alloy using a factorial design approach and fractal geometry”, Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 2379-2384, 2018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.1743

K. Touileb, A. Hedhibi, R. Djoudjou, A. Ouis, M. L. Bouazizi, “Mixing design for ATIG morphology and microstructure study of 316L stainless steel”, Engineering,Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 3990-3997, 2019 DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2665

L. Zardiackas, Stainless steel for implants, in: Wiley Encyclopedia of Biomedical Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, 2006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9780471740360.ebs1136

G. Manivasagam, D. Dhinasekaran, A. Rajamanickam, “Biomedical implants: corrosion and its prevention: a review”, Recent Patents on Corrosion Science, Vol. 2, pp. 40–54, 2010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/1877610801002010040

H. Hornberger, S. Virtanen, A. R. Boccaccini, “Biomedical coatings on magnesium alloys: a review”, Acta Biomateralia, Vol. 8, No. 7, pp. 2442–2455, 2012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2012.04.012

A. Parsapour, S. N. Khorasani, M. H. Fathi, “Effect of surface treatment and metallic coating on corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of surgical 316L stainless steel implant”, Journal of Materials Science & Technology, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 125–131, 2012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1005-0302(12)60032-2

A. Sharifnabi, M. H. Fathi, B. Eftekhari Yektaa, M. Hossainalipour, “The structural and bio-corrosion barrier performance of Mg-substituted fluorapatite coating on 316L stainless steel human body implant”, Applied Surface Science, Vol. 288, pp. 331-340, 2014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2013.10.029

S. V. Muley, A. N. Vidvans, G. P. Chaudhari, S. Udainiya, “An assessment of ultra-fine grained 316L stainless steel for implant applications”, Acta Biomaterialia, Vol. 30, pp. 408-419, 2016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2015.10.043

L. Jinlong, L. Tongxiang, W. Chen, “Surface enriched molybdenum enhancing the corrosion resistance of 316L stainless steel”, Materials Letters, Vol. 171, pp. 38-41, 2016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2016.01.153

K. Malkiewicz, M. Sztogryn, M. Mikulewicz, A. Wielgus, J. Kaminski, T. Wierzchon, “Comparative assessment of the corrosion process of orthodontic archwires made of stainless steel, titanium-molybdenum and nickel-titanium alloys”, Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 941-947, 2018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acme.2018.01.017

A. Bekmurzayeva, W. J. Duncanson, H. S. Azevedo, D. Kanayeva, “Surface modification of stainless steel for biomedical applications: Revisiting a century-old material”, Materials Science & Engineering: C, Vol. 93, pp. 1073–1089, 2018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2018.08.049

J. P. Caire, E. Chainet, B. Nguyen, P. Valenti, “Study of a new stainless steel electropolishing process”, in: The Proceedings of the 80th AESF annual technical conference, American Electroplaters & Surface Finishersw Society, 1993

B. O. Elfstrom, I. Olefjord, “Preparation of alloys for ESCA investigation”, Physica Scripta, Vol. 16, No. 5-6, pp. 436-441, 1977 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/0031-8949/16/5-6/043

O. Lavigne, Caracterisation des films passifs pour la definition de nouveaux materiaux : Application aux plaques bipolaires metalliques des systemes PEMFCs, PhD Thesis, INSA Lyon, 2009 (in French)

H. F. Hildebrand, J. C. Hornez, “Biological response and biocompatibility”, in: Metals as biomaterials, Wiley and Sons, 1998


How to Cite

D. Aroussi, B. Aour, and A. S. Bouaziz, “A Comparative Study of 316L Stainless Steel and a Titanium Alloy in an Aggressive Biological Medium”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 5093–5098, Dec. 2019.


Abstract Views: 995
PDF Downloads: 470

Metrics Information

Most read articles by the same author(s)