Performance Analysis of Selective Mapping in Underwater Acoustic Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Communication System
Published online first on January 30, 2021.
Under-Water Acoustic (UWA) communication networks are commonly formed by associating various independent UWA vehicles and transceivers connected to the bottom of the sea with battery-operated power modems. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is one of the most vital innovations for UWA communications, having improved data rates and the ability to transform fading channels into flat fading. Moreover, OFDM is more robust on Inter-Symbol and Inter-Carrier Interferences (ISI and ICI respectively). However, OFDM technology suffers from a high Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR), resulting in nonlinear distortions and higher Bit Error Rates (BERs). Saving power of battery deployed modems is an important necessity for sustainable underwater communications. This paper studies PAPR in UWA OFDM communications, employing Selective Mapping (SLM) as a tool to mitigate PAPR. The proposed SLM with the oversampling factor method proves to be less complex and more efficient. Simulation results indicate that SLM is a promising PAPR reduction method for UWA OFDM communications reducing BER.
Keywords:orthogonal frequency divisional multiplexing, peak to average power ratio, selective mapping, energy efficiency, underwater acoustic communication
S. Zhou and Z. Wang, OFDM for Underwater Acoustic Communications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118693865
V. P. Kodanev and Y. V. Zakharov, "Experimental research of underwater acoustic long-range transmission of high-rate data," Le Journal de Physique IV, vol. 4, no. C5, pp. C5-1105-C5-1108, May 1994. https://doi.org/10.1051/jp4:19945243
Y. V. Zakharov and V. P. Kodanev, Experimental Study of an underwater Acoustic communication system with Pseudonoise signals. 1993.
T. Altabbaa and E. Panayirci, "Channel Estimation and Equalization Algorithm for OFDM-Based UnderwaterAcoustic Communications Systems," in ICWMC 2017 : The Thirteenth International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Communications, Nice, France, Jul. 2017, pp. 113-118.
X. Wang, X. Wang, R. Jiang, W. Wang, Q. Chen, and X. Wang, "Channel Modelling and Estimation for Shallow Underwater Acoustic OFDM Communication via Simulation Platform," Applied Sciences, vol. 9, no. 3, Jan. 2019, Art. no. 447. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030447
W. K. Lam and R. F. Ormondroyd, "A coherent COFDM modulation system for a time-varying frequency-selective underwater acoustic channel," in Seventh International Conference on Electronic Engineering in Oceanography, 1997. "Technology Transfer from Research to Industry.," Southampton, UK, Jun. 1997, pp. 198-203. https://doi.org/10.1049/cp:19970684
B. Pranitha and L. Anjaneyulu, "Performance Evaluation of a MIMO based Underwater Communication System under Fading Conditions," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 4886-4892, Dec. 2019. https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3132
M. S. Abd El-Galil, N. F. Soliman, M. I. Abdalla, and F. E. Abd El-Samie, "Efficient underwater acoustic communication with peak-to-average power ratio reduction and channel equalization," International Journal of Speech Technology, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 649-696, Sep. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10772-019-09600-1
K. Ramadan, A. S. Fiky, M. I. Dessouky, and F. E. Abd El-Samie, "Equalization and carrier frequency offset compensation for UWA-OFDM communication systems based on the discrete sine transform," Digital Signal Processing, vol. 90, pp. 142-149, Jul. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsp.2019.02.004
W. Raza, X. Ma, T. Wang, and M. Bilal, "Low complexity energy efficient orthogonal frequency division multiplexing communication system over underwater acoustic channel by partial transmit sequence peak to average power ratio reduction," The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 146, no. 4, pp. 2764-2765, Oct. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1121/1.5136573
A. Elsanousi and S. Oztürk, "Performance Analysis of OFDM and OFDM-MIMO Systems under Fading Channels," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 3249-3254, Aug. 2018. https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2209
J. Jake, E. Mwangi, and K. Langat, "Spectral Re-Growth Suppression in the FBMC-OQAM Signal Under the Non-linear Behavior of a Power Amplifier," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 4801-4807, Oct. 2019. https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3097
R. Marsalek, P. Jardin, and G. Baudoin, "From post-distortion to pre-distortion for power amplifiers linearization," IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 308-310, Jul. 2003. https://doi.org/10.1109/LCOMM.2003.814714
M. Friese, "On the degradation of OFDM-signals due to peak-clipping in optimally predistorted power amplifiers," in IEEE GLOBECOM 1998 (Cat. NO. 98CH36250), Nov. 1998, vol. 2, pp. 939-944.
B. M. Lee and Y. Kim, "Transmission Power Determination Based on Power Amplifier Operations in Large-Scale MIMO-OFDM Systems," Applied Sciences, vol. 7, no. 7, p. 709, Jul. 2017. https://doi.org/10.3390/app7070709
X. Ma, T. Wang, L. Li, W. Raza, and Z. Wu, "Doppler Compensation of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing for Ocean Intelligent Multimodal Information Technology," Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 2351-2358, Dec. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11036-020-01609-0
W. Raza, X. Ma, A. Ali, Z. A. Shah, and C. Mehdi, "An Implementation of Partial Transmit Sequences to Design Energy Efficient Underwater Acoustic OFDM Communication System," International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security (IJCSIS), vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 19-26, Apr. 2020.
X. Ma, W. Raza, Z. Wu, M. Bilal, Z. Zhou, and A. Ali, "A Nonlinear Distortion Removal Based on Deep Neural Network for Underwater Acoustic OFDM Communication with the Mitigation of Peak to Average Power Ratio," Applied Sciences, vol. 10, no. 14, p. 4986, Jan. 2020. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144986
X. Ma, Z. Zhou, K. Liu, J. Zhang, and W. Raza, "Poles Extraction of Underwater Targets Based on Matrix Pencil Method," IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 103007-103019, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2999419
B. M. Lee, Y. S. Rim, and W. Noh, "A combination of selected mapping and clipping to increase energy efficiency of OFDM systems," PLoS ONE, vol. 12, no. 10, 2017, Art. no. e0185965. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0185965
J. Wu, "Iterative Compressive Sensing for the Cancellation of Clipping Noise in Underwater Acoustic OFDM System," Wireless Personal Communications, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 2093-2107, Dec. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-018-5897-9
S. Abouty, L. Renfa, Z. Fanzi, and F. Mangone, "A Novel Iterative Clipping and Filtering Technique for PAPR Reduction of OFDM Signals: System Using DCT/IDCT Transform," International Journal of Future Generation Communication and Networking, vol. 6, no. 1, p. 8, 2013.
C. A. Devlin, A. Zhu, and T. J. Brazil, "Peak to average power ratio reduction technique for OFDM using pilot tones and unused carriers," in 2008 IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium, Orlando, FL, USA, Jan. 2008, pp. 33-36. https://doi.org/10.1109/RWS.2008.4463421
X. Huang, J. Lu, J. Chuang, and J. Zheng, "Companding transform for the reduction of peak-to-average power ratio of OFDM signals," in IEEE VTS 53rd Vehicular Technology Conference, Spring 2001. Proceedings (Cat. No.01CH37202), Rhodes, Greece, May 2001, vol. 2, pp. 835-839 vol.2.
R. J. Baxley, C. Zhao, and G. T. Zhou, "Constrained Clipping for Crest Factor Reduction in OFDM," IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 570-575, Dec. 2006. https://doi.org/10.1109/TBC.2006.883301
J. Armstrong, "Peak-to-average power reduction for OFDM by repeated clipping and frequency domain filtering," Electronics Letters, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 246-247, Feb. 2002. https://doi.org/10.1049/el:20020175
S. Cha, M. Park, S. Lee, K. Bang, and D. Hong, "A new PAPR reduction technique for OFDM systems using advanced peak windowing method," IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 405-410, May 2008. https://doi.org/10.1109/TCE.2008.4560106
G. Chen, R. Ansari, and Y. Yao, "Improved Peak Windowing for PAPR Reduction in OFDM," in VTC Spring 2009 - IEEE 69th Vehicular Technology Conference, Barcelona, Spain, Apr. 2009, pp. 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1109/VETECS.2009.5073593
P. Foomooljareon, W. A. C. Fernando, and K. M. Ahmed, "PAPR reduction of OFDM systems using input sequence envelope scaling," in The 57th IEEE Semiannual Vehicular Technology Conference, 2003. VTC 2003-Spring., Jeju, South Korea, Apr. 2003, vol. 2, pp. 1243-1247.
R. Chackochan and H. Soni, "Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) reduction in OFDM for a WLAN network using SLM technique," in 2011 3rd International Conference on Electronics Computer Technology, Kanyakumari, India, Apr. 2011, vol. 3, pp. 57-59. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICECTECH.2011.5941800
R. Luo, R. Li, Y. Dang, J. Yang, and W. Liu, "Two improved SLM methods for PAPR and BER reduction in OFDM-ROF systems," Optical Fiber Technology, vol. 21, pp. 26-33, Jan. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yofte.2014.07.007
A. Alavi, C. Tellambura, and I. Fair, "PAPR reduction of OFDM signals using partial transmit sequence: an optimal approach using sphere decoding," IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 982-984, Nov. 2005. https://doi.org/10.1109/LCOMM.2005.11014
C. Lin and F. Yong, "A Novel PTS Scheme for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems Using Riemann Sequence," in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Intelligence, 2011, pp. 554-560. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-23887-1_71
J. Tellado, L. M. C. Hoo, and J. M. Cioffi, "Maximum-likelihood detection of nonlinearly distorted multicarrier symbols by iterative decoding," IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 218-228, Feb. 2003. https://doi.org/10.1109/TCOMM.2003.809289
I. Mahafeno, J.-F. Hélard, and Y. Louet, "SOCP Approach for PAPR Reduction Using Tone Reservation for the Future DVB-T/H Standards," in Multi-Carrier Systems & Solutions 2009, Dordrecht, 2009, pp. 219-226. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2530-2_21
R. Sundararajan, M. Dilip Reddy, D. Vinurudh, A. Anil, D. Mohan, and N. K. Neelima, "Non-linear Mathematical Equations for PAPR Reduction in OFDM," in Mobile Communication and Power Engineering, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013, pp. 181-186. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35864-7_25
J. Wu, G. Qiao, and X. Qi, "The Research on Improved Companding Transformation for Reducing PAPR in Underwater Acoustic OFDM Communication System," Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society, vol. 2016, Apr. 2016, Art. no. 3167483. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/3167483
J. Hou, C. Tellambura, and J. Ge, "Tone injection for PAPR reduction using parallel tabu search algorithm in OFDM systems," in 2012 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), Anaheim, CA, USA, Dec. 2012, pp. 4899-4904. https://doi.org/10.1109/GLOCOM.2012.6503895
R. W. Bäuml, R. F. H. Fischer, and J. B. Huber, "Reducing the peak-to-average power ratio of multicarrier modulation by selected mapping," Electronics Letters, vol. 32, no. 22, pp. 2056-2057, Oct. 1996. https://doi.org/10.1049/el:19961384
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 382
PDF Downloads: 229
Copyright (c) 2021 Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.