Bandwidth and Efficiency Enhancement of Rectangular Patch Antenna for SHF Applications

M. M. Nahas, M. Nahas


The microstrip patch antenna is used in various communication applications including cellular phones, satellites, missiles, and radars, due to its several attractive features such as small size and weight, low cost, and easy fabrication. The microstrip patch antenna consists of a top radiating patch, a bottom ground plane, and a dielectric substrate in between. The patch can have different shapes, the rectangular patch being the most commonly used. In practice, the microstrip antenna suffers from narrow bandwidth and low gain efficiency. This paper aims to enhance the bandwidth and efficiency of a rectangular-patch antenna using the High-Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS). Initially different patch sizes and substrate materials are investigated and optimal antenna parameters are achieved. Then, the antenna performance is further enhanced by inserting single and double slot designs into the patch. Two cost-effective feeding methods are involved in the investigation. The antenna is designed to operate in the Super High Frequency (SHF) band.


microstrip patch antenna; microwave; SHF; slot

Full Text:



N. Singh, S. Kumar, B. K. Kanaujia, “A new trend to power up next-generation Internet of Things (IoT) devices:‘rectenna’”, in: Energy Conservation for IoT Devices, pp. 331–356, Springer, 2019

A. Joret, M. F. L. Abdullah, M. S. Sulong, “Simulation of GPR system design using CST microwave and Matlab”, Yanbu Journal of Engineering and Science, Vol. 14, pp. 49–57, 2017

V. P. Patil, “Enhancement of bandwidth of rectangular patch antenna using two square slots techniques”, International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Emerging Technologies, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 1–12, 2012

S. Chattopadhyay, M. Biswas, J. Y. Siddiqui, D. Guha, “CAD of mechanically tunable rectangular microstrip patch with variable aspect ratio”, IEEE Applied Electromagnetics Conference, Kolkata, India, December 19-20, 2007

S. R. Emadian, J. Ahmadi-Shokouh, “Very small dual band-notched rectangular slot antenna with enhanced impedance bandwidth”, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 63, No. 10, pp. 4529–4534, 2015

M. U. Khan, M. S. Sharawi, R. Mittra, “Microstrip patch antenna miniaturisation techniques: a review”, IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 9, No. 9, pp. 913–922, 2015

A. Kumar, J. Kaur, R. Singh, “Performance analysis of different feeding techniques”, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 884–890, 2013

A. Chaudhary, D. C. Dhukaiya, “Analysis and bandwidth enhancement by cutting pi and rectangular slot in rectangular mictrostrip antenna for broadband applications”, International Journal of Enhanced Research in Science Technology & Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 431-437, 2014

K. N. Lal, A. K. Singh, “Modified design of microstrip patch antenna for WiMAX communication system”, 2014 IEEE Students’ Technology Symposium, Kharagpur, India, February 28-March 2, 2014

S. Mahmoud, W. Swelam, M. Hassan, “Parametric study of slotted ground microstrip patch antenna”, IOSR Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 1–8, 2016

H. F. Abu Tarboush, H. S. Al-Raweshidy, R. Nilavalan, “Bandwidth enhancement for microstrip patch antenna using stacked patch and slot”, 2009 IEEE International Workshop on Antenna Technology, Santa Monica, USA, March 2-4, 2009

R. J. Chitra, V. Nagarajan, “Double L-slot microstrip patch antenna array for WiMAX and WLAN applications”, Computers & Electrical Engineering, Vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 1026–1041, 2013

L. Agarwal, S. Gandhi, S. Malik, S. Vijay, T. S. Chauhan, “Design and analysis of rectangular patch with square slots”, International Journal of Scientific Research and Management Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 15–20

K. F. Tong, K. M. Luk, K. F. Lee, R. Q. Lee, “A broad-band U-slot rectangular patch antenna on a microwave substrate”, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 48, No. 6, pp. 954–960, 2000

S. Chatterjee, “Compact microstrip patch antenna for microwave communication”, Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics, Vol. 51, No. 11, pp. 800–807, 2016

G. Chaouki, N. Omrane, G. Said, G. Ali, “An electrical model to U-Slot patch antenna with circular polarization”, International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 62-66, 2017

A. Rani, R. K. Dawre, “Design and analysis of rectangular and U slotted patch for satellite communication”, International Journal of Computer Applications, Vol. 12, No. 7, pp. 36-40, 2010

A. Burcakbas, S. Soylu, B. Bektas, S. T. Imeci, “Square shape patch antenna with triangular slot”, 2017 International Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Symposium, Firenze, Italy, March 26-30, 2017

M. S. Afaqui, E. Garcia-Villegas, E. Lopez-Aguilera, “IEEE 802.11ax: challenges and requirements for future high efficiency WiFi”, IEEE Wireless Communications, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 130–137, 2017

eISSN: 1792-8036     pISSN: 2241-4487