Groundwater Quality Analysis for Human Consumption: A Case Study of Sukkur City, Pakistan
Drinking water quantity and quality is of the utmost importance. If the drinking water gets contaminated, it can result in severe health problems. For example, the continuous consumption of drinking water containing more than permissible amounts of fluoride can lead to bone deterioration and increased risk of bone fracture . The present study was carried out to check the quality of underground water of Sukkur city. The analyzed parameters were fluoride, sodium, magnesium, calcium, potassium, iron, arsenic, TDS, pH, conductivity, odor, color and taste. World Health Organization (WHO) standards were followed in present study. Underground water samples were collected from 20 different populated locations of Sukkur city. Only arsenic, pH, iron and potassium were found to be within health safe limits while the rest of the parameters exceeded the permissible standards set out by WHO. The TDS, sodium, fluoride and magnesium were over the limits at some locations.
Keywords:groundwater, water quality, physiochemical analysis
R. Buamah, C. A. Oduro, M. H. Sadik,“Fluoride removal from drinking water using regenerated aluminum oxide coated media”, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 250-258, 2016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2015.10.036
M. M. Mekonnen, A. Y. Hoekstra,“Four billion people facing severe water scarcity”, Science Advances, Vol. 2, No. 2, e1500323, 2016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1500323
M. T. Shah, J. Ara, S. Muhammad, S. Khan, S. Tariq, “Health risk assessment via surface water and sub-surface water consumption in the mafic and ultramafic terrain, Mohmand agency, northern Pakistan”, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, Vol. 118, pp. 60-67, 2012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2012.04.008
M. L. Susko, M. S. Bloom, I. A. Neamtiu, A. A. Appleton, S. Surdu, C. Pop, E. F. Fitzgerald, D. Anastasiu, E. S. Gurzau,“Low-level arsenic exposure via drinking water consumption and female fecundity-A preliminary investigation”, Environmental Research, Vol. 154, pp. 120-125, 2017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2016.12.030
S. Khan, M. Shahnaz, N. Jehan, S. Rehman, M. TahirShah, I. Din, “Drinking water quality and human health risk in Charsadda district, Pakistan”, Journal of cleaner production, Vol. 60, pp. 93-101, 2013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.02.016
United States Environmental Protection Agency, Seminar Publication Wellhead Protection Guide for Small Communities, 1993
A. Rasool, A. Farooqi, T. Xiao, S. Masood, M. AqeelKamran, S. Bibi, “Elevated levels of arsenic and trace metals in drinking water of Tehsil Mailsi, Punjab, Pakistan”, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, Vol. 169, pp. 89-99, 2016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2016.07.013
United States Environmental Protection Agency,Quick Guide To Drinking Water Sample Collection, available at https://www.epa.gov/region8-waterops/quick-guide-drinking-water-ample-collection.
Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency, National Standards for Drinking Water Quality,2008
S. L. Gora,S. A. Andrews. “Adsorption of natural organic matter and disinfection byproduct precursors from surface water on TiO 2 Nanoparticles: pH effects, isotherm modelling and implications for using TiO 2 for drinking water treatment”, Chemosphere, Vol. 174, pp. 363-370, 2017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.01.125
H. Y. Hu, Y. Du,Q. Y. Wu, X. Zhao, X. Tang, Z. Chen,“Differences in dissolved organic matter between reclaimed water source and drinking water source”, Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 551-552, pp. 133-142, 2016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.111
W. H. Hallenbeck, G. R. Brenniman, R. J. Anderson, “High sodium in drinking water and its effect on blood pressure. (n.d.)”, American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 114, No. 6, pp. 817-826, 1981 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a113252
L. Xu, G. Chen, C. Peng, H. Qiao, F. Ke, R. Hou, D. Li, H. Cai, X. Wan, “Adsorptive removal of fluoride from drinking water using porous starch loaded with common metal ions”, Carbohydrate Polymers,Vol. 160,pp. 82-89, 2017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.12.052
World Health Organization, Potassium in drinking-water, available at: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/water-quality/guidelines/
World Health Organization, Iron in drinking-water, available at: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/chemicals/iron.pdf, 2003
World Health Organization, Calcium and magnesiumin drinking-water, available at: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/
P. Wongsasuluk, S. Chotpantarat, W. Siriwong, M. Robson,“Heavy metal contamination and human health risk assessment in drinking water from shallow groundwater wells in an agricultural area in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand”, Environmental Geochemistry And Health, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 169-182, 2014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-013-9537-8
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 967
PDF Downloads: 353
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.