Wind Resource Evaluation in Libya: A Comparative Study of Ten Numerical Methods for the Estimation of Weibull Parameters using Multiple Datasets


  • Youssef Kassem Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy, Environment, and Water Research Center, Science, Technology, Engineering Education Application and Research Center, Near East University, Cyprus
  • Huseyin Camur Department of Mechanical Engineering, Science, Technology, Engineering Education Application and Research Center, Near East University, Cyprus
  • Almonsef Alhadi Salem Mosbah High and Intermediate Institute of Agricultural Technology, Gheran, Libya
Volume: 14 | Issue: 2 | Pages: 13388-13397 | April 2024 |


This study examines Libya's pursuit of sustainable wind energy solutions, using nine sites with mast measurements before the 2011 civil war and six gridded datasets, including CFSR, ERA5, EAR5-Ag, MERRA2, EAR5-Land, and TerraClimate. Employing the Weibull distribution function with ten methods, the empirical method of Justus proved to be optimal for calculating Weibull parameters across datasets. Al Bayda and Darnah exhibit substantial wind power potential (116.80-123.00 W/m²) based on MERRA2 data, making them ideal for large-scale wind turbine deployment. Furthermore, the results showed that wind power density was estimated below 100 W/m² for all selected locations according to CFSR, ERA5, EAR5-Ag, EAR5-Land, and TerraClimate. This study emphasizes the need for new mast measurements to refine dataset selection, which is crucial for accurate assessments and large wind farm planning. Consequently, this study provides key insights into optimizing wind energy utilization in diverse Libyan regions, addressing both the potential and the challenges in sustainable energy development.


Libya, wind energy potential, Weibull distribution, measured data, gridded datasets, numerical estimation method


Download data is not yet available.


W. Fang, Z. Liu, and A. R. Surya Putra, "Role of research and development in green economic growth through renewable energy development: Empirical evidence from South Asia," Renewable Energy, vol. 194, pp. 1142–1152, Jul. 2022.

O. Aslanturk and G. Kiprizh, "The Role of Renewable Energy in Ensuring Energy Security of Supply and Reducing Energy-Related Import," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 354–359, 2020.

F. Chien, H. W. Kamran, G. Albashar, and W. Iqbal, "Dynamic planning, conversion, and management strategy of different renewable energy sources: A Sustainable Solution for Severe Energy Crises in Emerging Economies," International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 7745–7758, Feb. 2021.

S. Potrč, L. Čuček, M. Martin, and Z. Kravanja, "Sustainable renewable energy supply networks optimization – The gradual transition to a renewable energy system within the European Union by 2050," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 146, Aug. 2021, Art. no. 111186.

Y. Kassem, H. Gokcekus, H. Camur, and A. H. A. Abdelnaby, "Wind Power Generation Scenarios in Lebanon," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 9551–9559, Dec. 2022.

F. Elmahmoudi, O. E. K. Abra, A. Raihani, O. Serrar, and L. Bahatti, "Elaboration of a Wind Energy Potential Map in Morocco using GIS and Analytic Hierarchy Process," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 6068–6075, Aug. 2020.

G. Bandoc, R. Prăvălie, C. Patriche, and M. Degeratu, "Spatial assessment of wind power potential at global scale. A geographical approach," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 200, pp. 1065–1086, Nov. 2018.

Y. Kassem, H. Gokcekus, and A. M. S. Essayah, "Wind Power Potential Assessment at Different Locations in Lebanon: Best–Fit Probability Distribution Model and Techno-Economic Feasibility," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 10578–10587, Apr. 2023.

L. Bilir, M. İmir, Y. Devrim, and A. Albostan, "An investigation on wind energy potential and small scale wind turbine performance at İncek region – Ankara, Turkey," Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 103, pp. 910–923, Oct. 2015.

M. Brower, Wind Resource Assessment: A Practical Guide to Developing a Wind Project. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2012.

E. Chavero-Navarrete, M. Trejo-Perea, J. C. Jáuregui-Correa, R. V. Carrillo-Serrano, G. Ronquillo-Lomeli, and J. G. Ríos-Moreno, "Hierarchical Pitch Control for Small Wind Turbines Based on Fuzzy Logic and Anticipated Wind Speed Measurement," Applied Sciences, vol. 10, no. 13, 2020.

Y. Kassem, H. Gökçekuş, and M. H. A. Abdalla, "Wind energy resource assessment based on the use of multiple satellite data for sustainable energy production in Sudan," Environment, Development and Sustainability, Nov. 2023.

N. Salvação, A. Bentamy, and C. Guedes Soares, "Developing a new wind dataset by blending satellite data and WRF model wind predictions," Renewable Energy, vol. 198, pp. 283–295, Oct. 2022.

A. Piasecki, J. Jurasz, and A. Kies, "Measurements and reanalysis data on wind speed and solar irradiation from energy generation perspectives at several locations in Poland," SN Applied Sciences, vol. 1, no. 8, Jul. 2019, Art. no. 865.

A. Khatibi and S. Krauter, "Validation and Performance of Satellite Meteorological Dataset MERRA-2 for Solar and Wind Applications," Energies, vol. 14, no. 4, Jan. 2021, Art. no. 882.

C. Satyanarayana Gubbala, V. B. R. Dodla, and S. Desamsetti, "Assessment of wind energy potential over India using high-resolution global reanalysis data," Journal of Earth System Science, vol. 130, no. 2, Apr. 2021, Art. no. 64.

C. Jung and D. Schindler, "On the influence of wind speed model resolution on the global technical wind energy potential," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 156, Mar. 2022, Art. no. 112001.

G. Gualtieri, "Analysing the uncertainties of reanalysis data used for wind resource assessment: A critical review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 167, Oct. 2022, Art. no. 112741.

V. Yildirir, E. Rusu, and F. Onea, "Wind Energy Assessments in the Northern Romanian Coastal Environment Based on 20 Years of Data Coming from Different Sources," Sustainability, vol. 14, no. 7, 2022.

Y. Kassem, H. Çamur, and R. A. F. Aateg, "Exploring Solar and Wind Energy as a Power Generation Source for Solving the Electricity Crisis in Libya," Energies, vol. 13, no. 14, 2020.

Y. Kassem, H. Camur, and A. A. S. Mosbah, "Feasibility Analysis of the Wind Energy Potential in Libya using the RETScreen Expert," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 11277–11289, Aug. 2023.

H. S. A. Lagili, A. Kiraz, Y. Kassem, and H. Gökçekuş, "Wind and Solar Energy for Sustainable Energy Production for Family Farms in Coastal Agricultural Regions of Libya Using Measured and Multiple Satellite Datasets," Energies, vol. 16, no. 18, 2023.

Y. Kassem, H. Çamur, and M. A. AbuGharara, "Assessment of Wind Energy Potential for Selecting Small-Scale Wind Turbines in Low Wind Locations in Libya: A Comparative Study," International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 820–836, 2019.

Y. Kassem, H. Gökçekuş, and R. A. Faraj, "Evaluation of the Wind Energy Potential in Libya’s Eastern Mediterranean Coast Area Using Weibull Distribution Function," International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 2483–2491, 2019.

Y. Kassem, H. Gökçekuş, and M. A. AbuGharara, "An Investigation on Wind Energy Potential in Nalut, Libya, using Weibull Distribution," International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 2474–2482, 2019.

A. Dogra, J. Thakur, and A. Tandon, "Do satellite-based products suffice for rainfall observations over data-sparse complex terrains? Evidence from the North-Western Himalayas," Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 299, Dec. 2023, Art. no. 113855.

G. R. C. Essou, F. Brissette, and P. Lucas-Picher, "Impacts of combining reanalyses and weather station data on the accuracy of discharge modelling," Journal of Hydrology, vol. 545, pp. 120–131, Feb. 2017.

Y. Kassem, H. Çamur, S. Abughinda, and A. Sefik, "Wind Energy Potential Assessment in Selected Regions in Northern Cyprus Based on Weibull Distribution Function," Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol. 15, pp. 128–140, Oct. 2019.

Y. Kassem, H. Gökçekuş, and W. Janbein, "Predictive model and assessment of the potential for wind and solar power in Rayak region, Lebanon," Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 1475–1502, Sep. 2021.

H. Teimourian, M. Abubakar, M. Yildiz, and A. Teimourian, "A Comparative Study on Wind Energy Assessment Distribution Models: A Case Study on Weibull Distribution," Energies, vol. 15, no. 15, 2022.

I. Hussain, A. Haider, Z. Ullah, M. Russo, G. M. Casolino, and B. Azeem, "Comparative Analysis of Eight Numerical Methods Using Weibull Distribution to Estimate Wind Power Density for Coastal Areas in Pakistan," Energies, vol. 16, no. 3, 2023.

J. A. Guarienti, A. Kaufmann Almeida, A. Menegati Neto, A. R. de Oliveira Ferreira, J. P. Ottonelli, and I. Kaufmann de Almeida, "Performance analysis of numerical methods for determining Weibull distribution parameters applied to wind speed in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil," Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, vol. 42, Dec. 2020, Art. no. 100854.

M. Khalid Saeed, A. Salam, A. U. Rehman, and M. Abid Saeed, "Comparison of six different methods of Weibull distribution for wind power assessment: A case study for a site in the Northern region of Pakistan," Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, vol. 36, Dec. 2019, Art. no. 100541.

B. Bilal, K. H. Adjallah, K. Yetilmezsoy, M. Bahramian, and E. Kıyan, "Determination of wind potential characteristics and techno-economic feasibility analysis of wind turbines for Northwest Africa," Energy, vol. 218, Mar. 2021, Art. no. 119558.

A. M. Jary, M. Elmnifi, Z. Said, L. J. Habeeb, and H. Moria, "Potential wind energy in the cities of the Libyan coast, a feasibility study," Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research and Developments, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 236–252, 2021.

F. Ahwide and S. Bousheha, "Estimation of Wind Characteristics and Energy Yield at Different Towns in Libya," International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 611–617, Jun. 2017.


How to Cite

Y. Kassem, H. Camur, and A. A. S. Mosbah, “Wind Resource Evaluation in Libya: A Comparative Study of Ten Numerical Methods for the Estimation of Weibull Parameters using Multiple Datasets”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 13388–13397, Apr. 2024.


Abstract Views: 43
PDF Downloads: 84

Metrics Information

Most read articles by the same author(s)