Subgrade Reaction Characteristics to the Anchor Pile of a Sheet Pile Quay Wall


  • Kenichiro Miyashita Pacific Consultants Co. Ltd, Japan
  • Takashi Nagao Kobe University, Japan
Volume: 14 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 13082-13089 | February 2024 |


The Conventional Design Method (CDM) for anchored sheet pile quay walls cannot accurately calculate the anchor pile deformation, partly because it does not properly consider the subgrade reaction. This study aims to clarify the subgrade reaction characteristics of the anchor pile using finite element analysis. The CDM assumes that passive failure occurs at the front of the anchor pile. On the contrary, this study shows that the active failure region generated from the back of the sheet pile wall expands to the periphery of the anchor pile and the passive failure region is not generated at its front. Thus, the subgrade reaction to the anchor pile is found to be smaller than the CDM assumption. The CDM also neglects the subgrade reaction in parts shallower than the tie-rod mounting height in the pile front. This study clarifies that the subgrade reaction in this part greatly contributes to the deformation resistance of the pile. Consequently, the subgrade reaction in the shallower range than the tie-rod mounting height is greater than or equal to that in the deeper range. Furthermore, the subgrade reaction has a lower upper limit when acting on the anchor pile than when acting on a horizontally stratified ground, and the difference between these limits widens as the reference earthquake strengthens.


sheet pile quay wall, seismic resistant design, subgrade reaction, anchor pile, active failure


Download data is not yet available.


G. A. Athanasopoulos et al., "Lateral spreading of ports in the 2014 Cephalonia, Greece, earthquakes," Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, vol. 128, Jan. 2020, Art. no. 105874.

S. Werner et al., "Seismic Performance of Port de Port-au-Prince during the Haiti Earthquake and Post-Earthquake Restoration of Cargo Throughput," Earthquake Spectra, vol. 27, no. 1-suppl1, pp. 387–410, 2011.

T. Sugano, A. Nozu, E. Kohama, K. Shimosako, and Y. Kikuchi, "Damage to coastal structures," Soils and Foundations, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 883–901, Aug. 2014.

"Seismic Design Guidelines for Port Structures," PIANC - International Navigation Association, Tokyo, Japan, 2001.

"Technical Standards and Commentaries for Port and Harbour Facilities in Japan," The Overseas Coastal Area Development Institute of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, 2009.

"EN 1998-1: Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance - Part 1: General rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings." 2004.

R. Conti, G. M. B. Viggiani, and F. Burali D'arezzo, "Some remarks on the seismic behaviour of embedded cantilevered retaining walls," in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, ICE Publishing, 2015, pp. 137–147.

L. Callisto, "On the seismic design of displacing earth retaining systems," in Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering for Protection and Development of Environment and Constructions, Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2019.

C. J. W. Habets, D. J. Peters, J. G. de Gijt, A. V. Metrikine, and S. N. Jonkman, "Model Solutions for Performance-Based Seismic Analysis of an Anchored Sheet Pile Quay Wall," International Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 293–305, Jan. 2016.

G. Gazetas, E. Garini, and A. Zafeirakos, "Seismic analysis of tall anchored sheet-pile walls," Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, vol. 91, pp. 209–221, Dec. 2016.

K. Miyashita and T. Nagao, "A Simplified Deformation Estimation Method for Anchor Piles of Sheet Pile Quay Walls under Kinematic Forces during Earthquakes," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 10108–10115, Feb. 2023.

M. Heidari, H. El Naggar, M. Jahanandish, and A. Ghahramani, "Generalized cyclic p–y curve modeling for analysis of laterally loaded piles," Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, vol. 63, pp. 138–149, Aug. 2014.

N. Gerolymos and G. Gazetas, "Phenomenological Model Applied to Inelastic Response of Soil-Pile Interaction Systems," Soils and Foundations, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 119–132, Aug. 2005.

M. Shadlou and S. Bhattacharya, "A 1D-modelling approach for simulating the soil-pile interaction mechanism in the liquefiable ground," Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, vol. 158, Jul. 2022, Art. no. 107285.

K. Georgiadis and M. Georgiadis, "Undrained Lateral Pile Response in Sloping Ground," Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 136, no. 11, pp. 1489–1500, Nov. 2010.

K. Muthukkumaran, R. Sundaravadivelu, and S. R. Gandhi, "Effect of Slope on P-Y Curves Due to Surcharge Load," Soils and Foundations, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 353–361, Jun. 2008.

M.-J. Hemel, M. Korff, and D. J. Peters, "Analytical model for laterally loaded pile groups in layered sloping soil," Marine Structures, vol. 84, Art. no. 103229, Jul. 2022.

H. Li, S. Liu, and L. Tong, "A numerical interpretation of the soil-pile interaction for the pile adjacent to an excavation in clay," Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, vol. 121, Mar. 2022, Art. no. 104344.

H. Matlock, "Correlation for Design of Laterally Loaded Piles in Soft Clay," presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, TX, USA, Apr. 1970.

M. Georgiadis, C. Anagnostopoulos, and S. Saflekou, "Cyclic Lateral Loading of Piles in Soft Clay," Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 47–60, Jun. 1992.

D. M. Dewaikar and D. S. Patil, "Behavior of Laterally Loaded Piles in Cohesionless Soil under One-Way Cyclic Loading," in The New Millennium Conference, 2001, vol. 1, pp. 97–100.

T. Nagao, "Effect of Foundation Width on Subgrade Reaction Modulus," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 6253–6258, Oct. 2020.

T. Nagao and R. Tsutaba, "Evaluation Methods of Vertical Subgrade Reaction Modulus and Rotational Resistance Moment for Seismic Design of Embedded Foundations," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 7386–7392, Aug. 2021.

S. Iai, Y. Matsunaga, and T. Kameoka, "Strain Space Plasticity Model for Cyclic Mobility," Soils and Foundations, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 1–15, Jun. 1992.

S. Iai and T. Kameoka, "Finite Element Analysis of Earthquake Induced Damage to Anchored Sheet Pile Quay Walls," Soils and Foundations, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 71–91, Mar. 1993.

S. Higuchi et al., "Evaluation of the seismic performance of dual anchored sheet pile wall," in 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Lisbon, Portugal, 2012.

T. Nagao and Y. Kurachi, "An Experimental and Analytical Study on the Seismic Performance of Piers with Different Foundation Bottom Widths," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 9142–9148, Oct. 2022.

O. Ozutsumi, Y. Tamari, Y. Oka, K. Ichii, S. Iai, and Y. Umeki, "Modeling of soil-pile interaction subjected to soil liquefaction in plane strain analysis," in Proceedings of the 38th Japan National Conference on Geotechnical Engineering, Akita, Japan, 2003, pp. 1899–1900.

B. O. Hardin and V. P. Drnevich, "Shear Modulus and Damping in Soils: Design Equations and Curves," Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, vol. 98, no. 7, pp. 667–692, Jul. 1972.

I. Towhata, "Modeling soil behavior under principal stress axes rotation," in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Nagoya, Japan, 1985, vol. 1, pp. 523–530.

G. Masing, "Eigenspannungen und verfestigung beim messing," in Proceedings, second international congress of applied mechanics, Zurich, Switzerland, 1926, pp. 332–335.

O. Ozutsumi and S. Iai, "Adjustment Method of the Hysteresis Damping for Multiple Shear Spring Model," in International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics, San Diego, CA, USA, Mar. 2001.

N. Mononobe and H. Matsuo, "On determination of earth pressure during earthquake," in Proceedings of the World Engineering Congress, Tokyo, Japan, 1929, pp. 177–185.

A. Fusco, G. M. B. Viggiani, G. S. P. Madabhushi, G. Caputo, R. Conti, and C. Prüm, "Physical modelling of anchored steel sheet pile walls under seismic actions," in Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering for Protection and Development of Environment and Constructions, Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2019.


How to Cite

K. Miyashita and T. Nagao, “Subgrade Reaction Characteristics to the Anchor Pile of a Sheet Pile Quay Wall”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 13082–13089, Feb. 2024.


Abstract Views: 50
PDF Downloads: 35

Metrics Information

Most read articles by the same author(s)