A Simplified Deformation Estimation Method for Anchor Piles of Sheet Pile Quay Walls under Kinematic Forces during Earthquakes

Authors

  • Kenichiro Miyashita Pacific Consultants Co, Ltd, Japan
  • Takashi Nagao Kobe University, Japan
Volume: 13 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 10108-10115 | February 2023 | https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.5469

Abstract

In the seismic design of quay walls, it is necessary to evaluate the deformation of the walls during earthquakes as well as the safety of structural members. However, conventional seismic design methods for sheet pile quay walls cannot accurately determine the degree of deformation. One reason for this is that conventional methods do not consider kinematic forces acting on an anchor pile due to the deformation of the ground. This study proposes a simplified estimation method for anchor pile deformation under the influence of kinematic forces. The results of two-dimensional finite element analysis reveal that anchor pile deformation involves rotational and translational components caused by the kinematic forces, which the conventional methods do not consider. The deformation of the anchor pile caused by kinematic forces was 30%–40% of the total deformation at the pile head. It was clarified that unlike horizontally stratified ground, shear stress is generated in the ground before an earthquake resulting in the kinematic force acting on the anchor pile during the earthquake. Furthermore, a simplified method for estimating the deformation of the anchor pile under kinematic forces that uses one-dimensional seismic response analysis considering the predicted shear stress based on a theoretical equation is proposed. It was demonstrated that the proposed method accurately reproduces the anchor pile deformation.

Keywords:

sheet pile quay wall, seismic design, finite element analysis, anchor pile, kinematic force

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Technical standards and commentaries for port and harbour facilities in Japan. Tokyo, Japan: The Overseas Coastal Area Development Institute of Japan, 2009.

BS EN 1998-1(2004), Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance – Part 1: General rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings. London, UK: British Standards Institution, 2004.

E. Galal, D. E. Mohamed, and E. Tolba, "A study of sheet pile quay wall rehabilitation methods," Port-Said Engineering Research Journal, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 37–45, Sep. 2022.

G. A. Athanasopoulos et al., "Lateral spreading of ports in the 2014 Cephalonia, Greece, earthquakes," Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, vol. 128, Jan. 2020, Art. no. 105874. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2019.105874

S. Werner et al., "Seismic Performance of Port de Port-au-Prince during the Haiti Earthquake and Post-Earthquake Restoration of Cargo Throughput," Earthquake Spectra, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 387–410, Oct. 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1193/1.3638716

T. Sugano, A. Nozu, E. Kohama, K. Shimosako, and Y. Kikuchi, "Damage to coastal structures," Soils and Foundations, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 883–901, Aug. 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sandf.2014.06.018

L. Wang, Z. Yajun, W. Gong, J. Li, and A. Ishimwe, "Calculation Method of Seismic Residual Displacement of Sheet Pile Quay Walls," Advances in Civil Engineering, vol. 2019, Aug. 2019, Art. no. e1251295. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/1251295

G. Gazetas, E. Garini, and A. Zafeirakos, "Seismic analysis of tall anchored sheet-pile walls," Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, vol. 91, pp. 209–221, Dec. 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2016.09.031

M. Mohajeri, Y. Kobayshi, K. Kawaguchi, and M. Sato, "Numerical Study on Lateral Spreading of Liquefied Ground Behind a Sheet Pile Model in a Large Scale Shake Table Test," in 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, BC, Canada, Aug. 2004, pp. 1–10.

U. Cilingir, S. K. Haigh, S. P. G. Madabhushi, and X. Zeng, "Seismic behaviour of anchored quay walls with dry backfill," Geomechanics and Geoengineering, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 227–235, Sep. 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17486025.2011.578670

A. Zekri, M. H. Aminfar, A. Ghalandarzadeh, and P. Ghasemi, "Effects of Liquefiable Layer on Dynamic Response of Anchored Flexible Quay Wall," in 10th International Congress on Advances in Civil Engineering, Ankara, Turkey, Oct. 2012, pp. 1–10.

K. Ichii, S. Iai, Y. Sato, and H. Liu, "Seismic Performance Evaluation Charts for Gravity Type Quay Walls," Structural Engineering / Earthquake Engineering, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 21s–31s, 2002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2208/jsceseee.19.21s

P. Ghasemi, A. Ghalandarzadeh, As. Zekri, and M. Aminfar, "Mitigation of Seismic Deformation of Anchored Quay Wall by Compacting," in 7th International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering, Chicago, IL, USA, Dec. 2013, vol. 7th International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering, pp. 1–5.

H. Tan, Z. Jiao, and J. Chen, "Field testing and numerical analysis on performance of anchored sheet pile quay wall with separate pile-supported platform," Marine Structures, vol. 58, pp. 382–398, Mar. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marstruc.2017.12.006

C. J. W. Habets, D. J. Peters, J. G. de Gijt, A. Metrikine, and S. N. Jonkman, "Model Solutions for Performance-Based Seismic Analysis of an Anchored Sheet Pile Quay Wall," International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 248–260, 2016.

M. F. R. Khazi and M. Vazeer, "FEM analysis of anchored sheet pile quay wall: A case study on the failure of WQ-7 berth of Visakhapatnam port," International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, vol. 5, no. 14, pp. 25–31, Sep. 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15623/ijret.2016.0526006

Y.-Y. Ko and H.-H. Yang, "Deriving seismic fragility curves for sheet-pile wharves using finite element analysis," Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, vol. 123, pp. 265–277, Aug. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2019.05.014

T. Hamamoto, T. Nagano, and T. Yamao, "Analytical study of the sheet pile quay damaged by 2005 Fukuoka earthquake," in Proceedings of 8th Annual IIIRR Conference on Disaster Management, Kumamoto, Japan, 2012, pp. 134–141.

K. Tokimatsu and Y. Asaka, "Effects of Liquefaction-Induced Ground Displacements on Pile Performance in the 1995 Hyogoken-Nambu Earthquake," Soils and Foundations, vol. 38, pp. 163–177, Sep. 1998. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3208/sandf.38.Special_163

S. Nikolaou, G. Mylonakis, G. Gazetas, and T. Tazoh, "Kinematic pile bending during earthquakes: analysis and field measurements," Geotechnique, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 425–440, Jun. 2001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.51.5.425.39973

M. N. Hussien, T. Tobita, S. Iai, and M. Karray, "Soil-pile-structure kinematic and inertial interaction observed in geotechnical centrifuge experiments," Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, vol. 89, pp. 75–84, Oct. 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2016.08.002

K. Tokimatsu, H. Suzuki, and M. Sato, "Effects of inertial and kinematic interaction on seismic behavior of pile with embedded foundation," Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 753–762, Aug. 2005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2004.11.018

R. W. Boulanger, C. J. Curras, B. L. Kutter, D. W. Wilson, and A. Abghari, "Seismic Soil-Pile-Structure Interaction Experiments and Analyses," Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 125, no. 9, pp. 750–759, Sep. 1999. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(1999)125:9(750)

J.-S. Chiou, W.-Y. Hung, Y.-T. Lee, and Z.-H. Young, "Combined dynamic structure-pile-soil interaction analysis considering inertial and kinematic effects," Computers and Geotechnics, vol. 125, Sep. 2020, Art. no. 103671. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2020.103671

N. Mononobe, "On determination of earth pressure during earthquake," in World Engineering Congress, Tokyo, Japan, 1929, vol. 9, pp. 177–185.

H. Matlock, "Correlation for Design of Laterally Loaded Piles in Soft Clay," in 2nd Annual Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, TX, USA, Apr. 1970. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4043/1204-MS

M. Georgiadis, C. Anagnostopoulos, and S. Saflekou, "Cyclic Lateral Loading of Piles in Soft Clay," Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 47–60, Jun. 1992.

M. D. Dewaikar and S. D. Patil, "Behavior of Laterally Loaded Piles in Cohesionless Soil under One-Way Cyclic Loading," in The New Millennium Conference, 2001, pp. 97-100.

T. Nagao, "Effect of Foundation Width on Subgrade Reaction Modulus," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 6253–6258, Oct. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3668

T. Nagao and R. Tsutaba, "Evaluation Methods of Vertical Subgrade Reaction Modulus and Rotational Resistance Moment for Seismic Design of Embedded Foundations," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 7386–7392, Aug. 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.4269

S. Iai, Y. Matsunaga, and T. Kameoka, "Strain Space Plasticity Model for Cyclic Mobility," Soils and Foundations, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 1–15, Jun. 1992. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3208/sandf1972.32.2_1

S. Iai and T. Kameoka, "Finite Element Analysis of Earthquake Induced Damage to Anchored Sheet Pile Quay Walls," Soils and Foundations, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 71–91, Mar. 1993. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3208/sandf1972.33.71

S. Higuchi et al., "Evaluation of the seismic performance of dual anchored sheet pile wall," in 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Lisbon, Portuga, Sep. 2012, pp. 1–10.

T. Nagao and Y. Kurachi, "An Experimental and Analytical Study on the Seismic Performance of Piers with Different Foundation Bottom Widths," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 9142–9148, Oct. 2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.5088

I. Towhata and K. Ishihara, "Modelling soil behavior under principal stress axes rotation," in International Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Nagoya, Japan, 1985, pp. 523–530.

B. O. Hardin and V. P. Drnevich, "Shear Modulus and Damping in Soils: Design Equations and Curves," Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, vol. 98, no. 7, pp. 667–692, Jul. 1972. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/JSFEAQ.0001760

G. Masing, "Eigenspannugen und Verfestigung beim Messing," in Second International Congress of Applied Mechanics, Zurich, Switzerland, 1926, pp. 332–335.

O. Ozutsumi and S. Iai, "Adjustment Method of the Hysteresis Damping for Multiple Shear Spring Model," in 4th International Conference on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics, San Diego, CA, USA, Mar. 2001.

I. Suetomi and N. Yoshida, "Nonlinear Behavior of Surface Deposit during the 1995 Hyogoken-Nambu Earthquake," Soils and Foundations, vol. 38, pp. 11–22, Sep. 1998. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3208/sandf.38.Special_11

T. Morita, "Simplified method to determine parameter of FLIP," Technical note of the Port and Harbour Research Institute, vol. 869, pp. 1–36, 1997.

O. Ozutsumi, Y. Tamari, Y. Oka, K. Ichii, S. Iai, and Y. Umeki, "Modeling of soil-pile interaction subjected to soil liquefaction in plane strain analysis," in 53rd Japan National Conference on Geotechnical Engineering, Takamatsu, Japan, 2003, pp. 1899-1900.

T. Nagao, M. Yamada, and A. Nozu, "Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis with Focus on Fourier Amplitude and Group Delay Time," in 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Lisbon, Portuga, Sep. 2012, pp. 1–10.

T. Nagao, "Seismic Amplification by Deep Subsurface and Proposal of a New Proxy," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 5157–5163, Feb. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3276

T. Nagao and Y. Fukushima, "Source- and Site-Specific Earthquake Ground Motions: Application of a State-of-the-Art Evaluation Method," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 5882–5888, Aug. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3612

T. Nagao, "Maximum Credible Earthquake Ground Motions with Focus on Site Amplification due to Deep Subsurface," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 6873–6881, Apr. 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3991

C.-Y. Ku, J.-J. Jang, J.-Y. Lai, and M.-J. Hsieh, "Modeling of dynamic behavior for port structures using the performance-based seismic design," Journal of Marine Science and Technology, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 732–741, Dec. 2017.

J. H. Michell, "On the Direct Determination of Stress in an Elastic Solid, with application to the Theory of Plates," Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, vol. s1-31, no. 1, pp. 100–124, 1899. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1112/plms/s1-31.1.100

Downloads

How to Cite

[1]
K. Miyashita and T. Nagao, “A Simplified Deformation Estimation Method for Anchor Piles of Sheet Pile Quay Walls under Kinematic Forces during Earthquakes”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 10108–10115, Feb. 2023.

Metrics

Abstract Views: 368
PDF Downloads: 307

Metrics Information

Most read articles by the same author(s)