Impacts of Soil Contamination on the Response of Piles Foundation under a Combination of Loading


  • M. O. Karkush Civil Engineering Department, University of Baghdad, Iraq
Volume: 6 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 917-922 | February 2016 |


The behavior of single piles driven into contaminated clayey soil samples subjected to a combination of static axial and cyclic lateral loadings have been studied in this research. A laboratory model was manufactured especially for studying such behavior. A solid circular cross sectional area pile of diameter 19 mm and made from aluminum, the pile was embedded into the soil with an eccentricity to embedded length (e/L) ratio of 0.334. The intact soil samples and industrial wastewater were obtained from the center of Iraq. The industrial wastewater is a byproduct disposed from Musayib thermal electric power plant. The intact clayey soil samples were synthetically contaminated with four percentages of 10, 20, 40 and 100% from the weight of water used in the soaking process which continued for a period of 30 days. The different percentages of contaminant concentrations have significant effects on the lateral load-displacement relation of the piles subjected to a combination of axial and lateral loadings. The vertical displacement under the same vertical load increased by 5–95%, the axial strength of piles decreased by 10–34% and the lateral-bearing capacity of the piles decreased by 10–34% with increasing the percentage of contamination from 10 to 100%. The ratio of permanent lateral displacement to the total lateral displacement was increased by 23–27% when the concentration of contaminant increased by 10-100%. Generally, the application of axial loading increases the lateral-bearing capacity of piles, and reduces the total lateral displacement.


industrial wastewater, soil contamination, clayey soil, axial loading, cyclic lateral loading, pile foundation


Download data is not yet available.


L. N. Reddi, H. I. Inyang, Geoenvironmental engineering principles and applications, Marcel Dekker Inc. New York, 2000 DOI:

H. D. Sharma, K. R. Reddi, Geoenvironmental engineering site remediation, waste containment, and emerging waste management technologies, John Wiley and Sons, Inc, 2004

M. Manassero, C. D. Shackelford, “Classification of industrial wastes for re-use and landfilling”, Proc., 1st ICEG, Edmonton, BiTech Publishers, Richmond B.C, 1994

M. J. Tomlinson, Pile design and construction practice, 4th edition. London, View Point Publication, 1994 DOI:

B. B. Broms, “Lateral resistance of piles in cohesionlesssoils'”, Proceeding of ASCE, Vol. 90, pp. 123-156, 1964

L. C. Reese, W. R. Cox, F. D. Koop, “Analysis of laterally loaded piles in sand”, 6th off shore Technology Conference, Houston, Vol. 2, pp. 473-483, 1974 DOI:

S. Basack, “Effect of lateral cyclic load on axial capacity of pile group in sand”, Int. Seminar on Civil and Infrastructural Engineering, University of Technology, Mara, Malaysia, 2006 DOI:

D. M. Dewaikar, S. V. Padmavathi, R. S. Salimath, “Ultimate lateral load of a pile in soft clay under cyclic loading”, 12th International Conference of International Association for Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics, pp. 3498 – 3507, 2008

S. Basack, “Response of vertical pile group subjected to horizontal cyclic load in soft clay”, Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 7, pp. 91–103, 2009 DOI:

S. K. Haigh, M. D. Bolton, “Centrifuge modeling of mono pile under cyclic lateral loads”, 7th International Conference on Physical Modeling in Geotechnics, Zurich, Vol. 2, pp. 965-970, 2012

H. G. Poulos, E. H. Davis, Pile foundation analysis and design, John Wiley and sons, New York, 1980

M. O. Karkush, M. S. Abdul Kareem, “Behavior of pile foundation subjected to lateral cyclic loading in contaminated soils”, Journal of Civil Engineering Research, Vol. 5, No. 6, pp.144-150, 2015

M. O. Karkush, M. S. Abdul Kareem, “Behavior of piles group subjected to lateral cyclic loading in contaminated soils”, International Journal of GEOMATE, Vol. 10, No. 21, 2016 DOI:

M. O. Karkush, M. S. Abdul Kareem, “Lateral load-carrying capacity of a pile foundation in contaminated soils” (unpublished)


How to Cite

M. O. Karkush, “Impacts of Soil Contamination on the Response of Piles Foundation under a Combination of Loading”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 917–922, Feb. 2016.


Abstract Views: 836
PDF Downloads: 337

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share

Most read articles by the same author(s)