Synthesis and Electrical Behavior of Sodium Doped Monoclinic SrSiO3


  • Mohd Najim Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Volume: 13 | Issue: 4 | Pages: 11432-11436 | August 2023 |


The operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells, oxygen division membranes, and oxygen sensors is determined by oxide-ion electrolytes. There is a strong incentive to reduce the operating temperature in solid oxide fuel cells, from 800°C to 500°C. The use of low-cost Na+ instead of K+ as dopant in monoclinic SrSiO3 offers a wider solid solution range (0.1<x< 0.5) in Sr1-xNaxSiO3-δ and obtains an oxide ion conductivity of 10-2 Scm-1 at 600°C, reducing the temperature of a smooth transition to full impairment of mobile oxide ions. For electrochemical characterization, the flat surfaces of the pellets were pasted with silver (Ag) paste and then sintered at 1200°C for 24 hours. The production of the Na2Si2O5 phase was observed for most compositions due to thermal treatment. Crystallization of Na2Si2O5 from glass was obtained in single-step calcination at 850°C after synthesis in an acetone medium, resulting in the highest conductivity. Although double calcination reduced conductivity, it improved thermal stability. Due to its low activation energy and lack of crystallization of other silicates, this material showed maximum conductivity after long-standing maturity at 600°C. Ethanol was used in place of acetone for powder assimilation and double calcination was also performed.


electrolyte, conductivity, activation energy, SrSiO3, solid oxide fuel cell


Download data is not yet available.


M. K. Mahapatra and P. Singh, "Chapter 24 - Fuel Cells: Energy Conversion Technology," in Future Energy, 2nd ed. T. M. Letcher, Ed. Boston, MA, USA: Elsevier, 2014, pp. 511–547.

Z. Zakaria, S. H. Abu Hassan, N. Shaari, A. Z. Yahaya, and Y. Boon Kar, "A review on recent status and challenges of yttria stabilized zirconia modification to lowering the temperature of solid oxide fuel cells operation," International Journal of Energy Research, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 631–650, 2020.

A. Aguadero et al., "Materials development for intermediate-temperature solid oxide electrochemical devices," Journal of Materials Science, vol. 47, no. 9, pp. 3925–3948, May 2012.

J. A. Kilner and M. Burriel, "Materials for Intermediate-Temperature Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells," Annual Review of Materials Research, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 365–393, 2014.

K. Huang and J. B. Goodenough, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology: Principles, Performance and Operations. Cambridge, UK: Woodhead Publishing, 2009.

J. B. Goodenough, "Oxide-Ion Electrolytes," Annual Review of Materials Research, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 91–128, 2003.

A. C. Kundur, M. P. Singh, and V. A. Sethuraman, "Sodium Doped Strontium Silicates as Electrolyte for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells," ECS Transactions, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 467-475, May 2017.

L. Fan, "Solid-State Electrolytes for SOFC," in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2020, pp. 35–78.

B. Zhu, R. Raza, L. Fan, and C. Sun, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: From Electrolyte-Based to Electrolyte-Free Devices. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH, 2020.

G. Chen et al., "Hyperbranched polyether boosting ionic conductivity of polymer electrolytes for all-solid-state sodium ion batteries," Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 394, Aug. 2020, Art. no. 124885.

P. L. Rao, B. Pahari, M. Shivanand, T. Shet, and K. V. Ramanathan, "NMR investigations unveil phase composition–property correlations in Sr0.55Na0.45SiO2.775 fast ion conductor," Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, vol. 84, pp. 204–209, Jul. 2017.

M. Viviani, A. Barbucci, M. P. Carpanese, R. Botter, D. Clematis, and S. Presto, "Ionic Conductivity of Na-doped SrSiO3," Bulgarian Chemical Communications, vol. 50, special issue D, pp. 55–61, 2018.

Y. Jee, X. Zhao, X. Lei, and K. Huang, "Phase Relationship and Ionic Conductivity in Na–SrSiO3 Ionic Conductor," Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 324–331, 2016.

J. Peet, "Oxide Ion Conductors for Energy Applications: Structure, Dynamics and Properties," Ph.D. dissertation, Durham University, Durham, UK, 2018.

S. W. Baek, J. M. Lee, T. Y. Kim, M. S. Song, and Y. Park, "Garnet related lithium ion conductor processed by spark plasma sintering for all solid state batteries," Journal of Power Sources, vol. 249, pp. 197–206, Mar. 2014.

P. Singh and J. B. Goodenough, "Monoclinic Sr1–xNaxSiO3–0.5x: New Superior Oxide Ion Electrolytes," Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 135, no. 27, pp. 10149–10154, Jul. 2013.

F. Dkhilalli, S. Megdiche, K. Guidara, M. Rasheed, R. Barillé, and M. Megdiche, "AC conductivity evolution in bulk and grain boundary response of sodium tungstate Na2WO4," Ionics, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 169–180, Jan. 2018.

N. Hirose and A. R. West, "Impedance Spectroscopy of Undoped BaTiO3 Ceramics," Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 79, no. 6, pp. 1633–1641, 1996.

J. Maier, "On the Conductivity of Polycrystalline Materials," Berichte der Bunsengesellschaft für physikalische Chemie, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 26–33, 1986.

L. Zhang, F. Liu, K. Brinkman, K. L. Reifsnider, and A. V. Virkar, "A study of gadolinia-doped ceria electrolyte by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy," Journal of Power Sources, vol. 247, pp. 947–960, Feb. 2014.

S. Sharma, K. Shamim, A. Ranjan, R. Rai, P. Kumari, and S. Sinha, "Impedance and modulus spectroscopy characterization of lead free barium titanate ferroelectric ceramics," Ceramics International, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 7713–7722, Jul. 2015.

J. T. S. Irvine, D. C. Sinclair, and A. R. West, "Electroceramics: Characterization by Impedance Spectroscopy," Advanced Materials, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 132–138, 1990.

P. Ptáček, "Rare-earth Element-bearing Apatites and Oxyapatites," in Apatites and their Synthetic Analogues - Synthesis, Structure, Properties and Applications, Rijeka, Croatia: IntechOpen, 2016.

A. Glukharev, O. Glumov, I. Smirnov, E. Boltynjuk, O. Kurapova, and V. Konakov, "Phase Formation and the Electrical Properties of YSZ/rGO Composite Ceramics Sintered Using Silicon Carbide Powder Bed," Applied Sciences, vol. 12, no. 1, Jan. 2022, Art. no. 190.

B. Mutnuri, "Thermal conductivity characterization of composite materials," MSc Thesis, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA, 2006.

O. N. Verma, S. Singh, V. K. Singh, M. Najim, R. Pandey, and P. Singh, "Influence of Ba Doping on the Electrical Behaviour of La0.9Sr0.1Al0.9Mg0.1O3−δ System for a Solid Electrolyte," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 1010–1021, Mar. 2021.

E. Kendrick and P. R. Slater, "Investigation of the influence of oxygen content on the conductivities of Ba doped lanthanum germanate apatites," Solid State Ionics, vol. 179, no. 21, pp. 981–984, Sep. 2008.

O. N. Verma, P. A. Jha, A. Melkeri, and P. Singh, "A comparative study of aqueous tape and pellet of (La0.89Ba0.01) Sr0.1Al0.9Mg0.1O3-δ electrolyte material," Physica B: Condensed Matter, vol. 521, pp. 230–238, Sep. 2017.

O. N. Verma, N. K. Singh, Raghvendra, and P. Singh, "Study of ion dynamics in lanthanum aluminate probed by conductivity spectroscopy," RSC Advances, vol. 5, no. 28, pp. 21614–21619, Feb. 2015.

A. K. Singh, R. Singh, and D. R. Chaudhary, "Prediction of effective thermal conductivity of moist porous materials," Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 698-702, Mar. 1990.

R. D. Bayliss, S. N. Cook, S. Fearn, J. A. Kilner, C. Greaves, and S. J. Skinner, "On the oxide ion conductivity of potassium doped strontium silicates," Energy & Environmental Science, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 2999–3005, Aug. 2014.

P. G. Bruce, J. Evans, and C. A. Vincent, "Conductivity and transference number measurements on polymer electrolytes," Solid State Ionics, vol. 28–30, pp. 918–922, Sep. 1988.

C. Tealdi, L. Malavasi, I. Uda, C. Ferrara, V. Berbenni, and P. Mustarelli, "Nature of conductivity in SrSiO 3 -based fast ion conductors," Chemical Communications, vol. 50, no. 94, pp. 14732–14735, 2014.

R. Pandey et al., "The effect of synthesis and thermal treatment on phase composition and ionic conductivity of Na-doped SrSiO3," Solid State Ionics, vol. 314, pp. 172–177, Jan. 2018.

Y. Jee, X. Zhao, and K. Huang, "On the cause of conductivity degradation in sodium strontium silicate ionic conductor," Chemical Communications, vol. 51, no. 47, pp. 9640–9642, May 2015.

M. Najim, "Electrical Behavior of Lanthanum Aluminate (LAO) and Gadolinium Doped Ceria (GDG) Composite Electrolyte for Electrochemical Devices," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 10232–10238, Apr. 2023.

M. F. Abdelkarim, L. S. Nasrat, S. M. Elkhodary, A. M. Soliman, A. M. Hassan, and S. H. Mansour, "Volume Resistivity and Mechanical Behavior of Epoxy Nanocomposite Materials," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 775–780, Apr. 2015.

L. Madani, K. S. Belkhir, and S. Belkhiat, "Experimental Study of Electric and Dielectric Behavior of PVC Composites," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 5233–5236, Feb. 2020.


How to Cite

M. Najim, “Synthesis and Electrical Behavior of Sodium Doped Monoclinic SrSiO3”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 11432–11436, Aug. 2023.


Abstract Views: 326
PDF Downloads: 275

Metrics Information

Most read articles by the same author(s)