Statistical Analysis of Component Deviation from Job Mix Formula in Hot Mix Asphalt


  • S. S. Almasoudi Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Iraq
  • A. H. K. Albayati Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Iraq
Volume: 12 | Issue: 5 | Pages: 9295-9301 | October 2022 |


The main objective of this research is to find out the effect of deviation in the aggregate gradients of asphalt mixtures from the Job Mix Formula (JMF) on the general mixture performance. Three road layers were worked on (wearing layer, binder layer, and base layer) and statistical analysis was performed for the data of completed projects in Baghdad city, and the sieve that carried the largest number of deviations for each layer was identified. No.8 sieve (2.36mm), No.50 sieve (0.3mm), and 3/8'' sieve (9.5mm) had the largest number of deviations in the wearing layer, the binder layer, and the base layer respectively. After that, a mixture called Mix 1, was made. This mixture was selected from a number of completed mixtures, and it represents the worst mixture. Mix 1 was compared with two other mixtures, Mix 2 and Mix 3, Mix 2 represents the mean of JMF for the gradients of aggregates, and Mix 3 is the same as Mix 1 except for the sieve that contains the largest number of deviations, so the gradient of aggregates for it is the mean of JMF. Fifteen Marshall specimens were made for each mixture and for each layer in order to know the differences in Marshall properties between the mixtures. Also, 6 specimens were made for each mixture (the total is 18 specimens for each layer) to check the indirect tensile strength, for the purpose of knowing the mixtures' susceptibility to moisture. Finally, 1 specimen was made for each mixture for repeated load test for the purpose of knowing the performance of the mixtures with respect to permanent deformation. The tests showed that the performance of Mix 2 and Mix 3 was improved in comparison with Mix 1. The deviation of the aggregate gradients in specific sieves may be higher than the limits of the JMF or it may be less, and in both cases, the implementation of a mixture like Mix 1 for the streets is bad for the performance of the road and failures occur due to the wrong implementation of the JMF. On the other hand, there are much better mixtures in all respects such as Mix 2 and Mix 3, and if they are implemented on the streets, they will certainly have much better.


aggregates gradations, job mix formula, deviations, rutting, marshall test


Download data is not yet available.


Y. H. Huang, Pavement analysis and design. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Prentice Hall, 1993.

H. M. A. A. Kareem and A. H. K. Albayati, "The Possibility of Minimizing Rutting Distress in Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 8063–8074, Feb. 2022. DOI:

Standards and Specifications for Roads and Bridges (Section R9). Baghdad, Iraq: State Commission of Roads and Bridges, Ministry of Housing and Construction, 2003.

T. D. White, S. R. Johnson, and J. J. Yzenas, Aggregate Contribution to Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) Performance. West Conshohocken, PA, USA: ASTM International, 2001. DOI:

M. A. Al-Jumaily, "A Study into the Merits of Using Recycled Hot- Mixes in the Construction of Surface Course Pavement in Iraq," M.S. thesis, University of Technology, 1998.

N. Zavrtanik, A. Ljubic, and G. Turk, "Statisticka odstupanja u analizama svojstava asfaltnih mjesavina," Gradevinar, vol. 67, no. 12, pp. 1199–1206, 2015. DOI:

J. Braziunas and H. Sivilevicius, "Statistical analysis of component deviation from job-mix formula in hot mix asphalt," in 8th International Conference on Environmental Engineering, Vilnius, Lithuania, Dec. 2011, pp. 1044–1050.

H. H. Joni, "Most Distresses Causes in Flexible Pavement For Baghdad Streets At Last Years," Engineering and Technology Journal, vol. 28, no. 18, pp. 894–906, 2010.

P. S. Kandhal and L. A. Cooley, "The Restricted Zone in the Superpave Aggregate Gradation Specification," National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA, NCHRP REPORT 464, 2001.

L. T. de de Souza, "Investigation of aggregate angularity effects on asphalt concrete mixture performance using experimental and virtual asphalt samples," M.S. thesis, University of Nebraska, 2009.

H. Al-Mosawe, N. Thom, G. Airey, and A. Ai-Bayati, "Effect of aggregate gradation on the stiffness of asphalt mixtures," International Journal of Pavement Engineering and Asphalt Technology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 1–10, Dec. 2015. DOI:

H. Al-Mosawe, N. Thom, G. Airey, and A. Albayati, "Linear viscous approach to predict rut depth in asphalt mixtures," Construction and Building Materials, vol. 169, pp. 775–793, Apr. 2018. DOI:

M. A. Ahmed and M. I. E. Attia, "Impact of Aggregate Gradation and Type on Hot Mix Asphalt Rutting In Egypt," International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 2249–2258, 2013.

E. Sangsefidi, H. Ziari, and A. Mansourkhaki, "The effect of aggregate gradation on creep and moisture susceptibility performance of warm mix asphalt," International Journal of Pavement Engineering, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 133–141, Feb. 2014. DOI:

A. H. M. Afaf, "Effect of aggregate gradation and type on hot asphalt concrete mix properties," Journal of Engineering Sciences, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 567–574, May 2014. DOI:

A. F. Al-Ani, "The effect of aggregate gradation and asphalt type on Marshall Properties and permanent deformation parameters of asphalt concrete mixes," Association of Arab Universities Journal of Engineering Sciences, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 195–212, Apr. 2018.

O. M. Kunene and D. Allopi, "Comparison Between Conditions of Major Roads Within and Outside the Port of Durban," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 363–367, Feb. 2013. DOI:

F. Alzaidy and A. H. K. Albayati, "A Comparison between Static and Repeated Load Test to Predict Asphalt Concrete Rut Depth," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 7363–7369, Aug. 2021. DOI:

E. Vivar and J. Haddock, "HMA Pavement Performance and Durability," Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA, FHWA/IN/JTRP-2005/14 2-11–14, SPR-2646, 2006.

C. Pan and T. White, "Conditions for Stripping Using Accelerated Testing," Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA, FHWA/IN/JTRP-97/13, Feb. 1999. DOI:

A. Albayati, "Permanent Deformation Prediction of Asphalt Concrete Under Repeated Loading," University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq, 2006.

T. L. J. Wasage, G. Ong, T. Fwa, and S. Tan, "Laboratory evaluation of rutting resistance of geosynthetics reinforced asphalt pavement," Journal of the Institution of Engineers, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 29–44, Jan. 2004.

C. L. Monismith, N. Ogawa, and C. R. Freeme, "Permanent deformation characteristics of subgrade soils in repeated loading," in 54th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, USA, Jan. 1975, pp. 1–17.

M. W. Witczak and K. Kaloush, "Specimen Geometry and Aggregate Size Effects in Uniaxial Compression and Constant Height Shear Tests," in Asphalt Paving Technology 2000, Reno, NV, USA, Mar. 2000, pp. 733–793.

W. A. Gul, "Effect of recycled cement concrete content on rutting behavior of asphalt concrete," M.S. thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, 2008.


How to Cite

S. S. Almasoudi and A. H. K. Albayati, “Statistical Analysis of Component Deviation from Job Mix Formula in Hot Mix Asphalt”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 9295–9301, Oct. 2022.


Abstract Views: 350
PDF Downloads: 154

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share

Most read articles by the same author(s)