The Possibility of Minimizing Rutting Distress in Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course


  • H. M. Abd Al Kareem Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Iraq
  • A. H. K. Albayati Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Iraq
Volume: 12 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 8063-8074 | February 2022 |


The excessive permanent deformation (rutting) in asphalt-concrete pavements resulting from frequent repetitions of heavy axle loads is studied in this paper. Rutting gradually develops with additional load applications and appears as longitudinal depressions in the wheel path. There are many causes of the rutting of asphalt roads, such as poor asphalt mixing and poor continuous aggregate gradation. All factors affecting the mixture resistance to permanent deformation must be discussed, and all must be properly considered to reduce the rutting propensity of asphalt-aggregate mixtures. In this study, several mixtures were produced with the most common techniques in rutting resistance (using the most effective additives for each mixture), and their performance was compared with the (conventional) mixture currently used in Iraq. The tests focused on the asphalt-concrete mixture for wearing courses. Different mixtures types were tried, namely, dense hot asphalt mixture (HMA) with two different asphalt contents (4.7% and 5.3%), Open-Grade Friction Course (OGFC) mixture, Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) mixture, and Beton Bitumineux a Module Eleve (BBME). The modifiers included natural Sisal Fibers (SFs), Carbon Fibers (CFs), and mineral filler (hydrated lime, HL). Marshall test was carried out to find stability and flow values. Rutting was evaluated by the repeated load test for cylindrical specimens under two temperatures (40°C and 60°C) to obtain the permanent deformation parameters. The parameters were used as input to the VESYS 5W software to evaluate the rut depth during different times of design life under 7×10^6 Equivalent Single Axle Loads (ESALs). The results of the selected mixtures were compared with the mixture designed in the laboratory dense gradation mix Job-Mix Formula (JMF)) within the limits of the Iraqi specification (SCRB,2003). Manipulation of the aggregate gradation that is customary in the implementation of the local mixture showed that the best performance regarding rutting resistance was exhibited by JMF, which decreased the rut depth at 40°C and 60°C by 21.63mm and 44.304mm respectively, in comparison with the conventional mixture. Changing the aggregate gradation of the local mixture gives better performance in rutting resistance without additives or changing the percentage of asphalt, at the same cost.


HMA, SAM, sisal fibers, OGFC, carbon fibers, hydrated lime, Job Mix Formula, repeated load test, BBME, VESYS


Download data is not yet available.


W. H. Goetz, J. F. McLaughlin, and L. E. Wood, Load Deformation Characteristics of Bituminous Mixtures Under Various Conditions of Loading. West Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue University, 1957. DOI:

A. Albayati, "Permanent Deformation Prediction of Asphalt Concrete under Repeated Loading," Ph.D. dissertation, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq, 2006.

HMA Pavement Mix Type Selection Guide. Washington, DC, USA: National Asphalt Pavement Association and Federal Highways Administration, 2001.

P. Chaturabong and H. U. Bahia, "The evaluation of relative effect of moisture in Hamburg wheel tracking test," Construction and Building Materials, vol. 153, pp. 337–345, Oct. 2017. DOI:

E. R. Brown and S. A. Cross, A national study of rutting in hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements. Alabama, USA: Auburn University, 1992.

U. Ghani, A. Iqbal, S. Ullah, M. Rizwan, and M. Javed, "Comparison of Rutting Resistance of Stone Mastic Asphalt with Convention Mix," United International Journal for Research & Technology, vol. 1, no. 11, pp. 22–28, 2020.

G. A. W. Majeed and S. I. Sarsam, "Assessing the Marshall Properties of Porous Asphalt Concrete," Journal of Engineering, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 113–129, Feb. 2021. DOI:

T. Baghaee Moghaddam, M. Soltani, and M. R. Karim, "Experimental characterization of rutting performance of Polyethylene Terephthalate modified asphalt mixtures under static and dynamic loads," Construction and Building Materials, vol. 65, pp. 487–494, Aug. 2014. DOI:

A. Mahrez, M. R. Karim, and H. Y. bt Katman, "Fatigue and Deformation Properties of Glass Fiber Reinforced Bituminous Mixes," Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, vol. 6, pp. 997–1007, 2005.

D. N. Little, P. E. Sebaaly, and P. E. Sebaaly, Hydrated lime in hot mix asphalt. Texas, USA: National Lime Association, 2006.

M. A. Notani, A. Arabzadeh, H. Ceylan, S. Kim, and K. Gopalakrishnan, "Effect of Carbon-Fiber Properties on Volumetrics and Ohmic Heating of Electrically Conductive Asphalt Concrete," Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, vol. 31, no. 9, Sep. 2019, Art. no. 04019200. DOI:

S. Karahancer, E. Eri̇ski̇n, M. Saltan, S. Terzi̇, O. Sarioglu, and D. O. Kucukcapraz, "Investigating The Utility Of Sisal In Hot Mix Asphalt As A Fiber," Muhendislik Bilimleri ve Tasarım Dergisi, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 906–912, Dec. 2019.

K. Kanitpong, T. J. Atud, and W. Martono, "Application Process of Hydrated Lime to Resist Moisture Damage and Rutting in a Phalt Mixture and Revision Report," Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, vol. 7, pp. 2051–2061, 2007.

A. H. K. Albayati and A. M. Mohammed, "Effect of Lime Addition Methods on Performance Related Properties of Asphalt Concrete Mixture," Journal of Engineering, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1–20, Sep. 2016.

NF P98-141: Enrobés Hydrocarbonés - Couches De Roulement Et Couches De Liaison : Bétons Bitumineux À Module Élevé (Bbme) - Définition - Classification - Caractéristiques - Fabrication - Mise en Oeuvre. Paris, France: AFNOR, 1999.

Standard Specification for Roads and Bridges. Nepal: Ministry of Physical Infrastructure and Transport, Department of Roads.

ASTM D7064/D7064M-21(2005), Standard Practice for Open-Graded Friction Course (OGFC) Asphalt Mixture Design. West Conshohocken, PA, USA: ASTM International, 2005.

AASHTO (2012), Standard Specifications for Transportation Materials and Methods of Sampling and Testing, 32nd Edition. Washington, DC, USA: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 2012.

P. J. Sanders and M. Nunn, The application of Enrobe a Module Eleve in flexible pavements. Berkshire, England: Transport Research Laboratory, 2005.

M. Razahi and A. Chopra, "A Review Of Using Ssisal Fiber And Coir Fiber As Additives In Stone Matrix Asphalt," International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 1692–1697, Jul. 2020.

ASTM D6926-04(2010), Standard Practice for Preparation of Bituminous Specimens Using Marshall Apparatus. West Conshohocken, PA, USA: ASTM International, 2010.

E. J. Yoder and M. W. Witczak, Principles of Pavement Design. New York, NY, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 1991.

"Truck Pavement Interaction Program," in VESYS 5Ws User Manual, 2003.

ASTM D6390(2011), Standard Test Method for Determination of Draindown Characteristics in Uncompacted Asphalt Mixtures. West Conshohocken, PA, USA: ASTM International, 2011.

ASTM E2018-15(2017), Standard Guide for Property Condition Assessments: Baseline Property Condition Assessment Process. West Conshohocken, PA, USA: ASTM International, 2017.

F. Zhou, T. Scullion, and D.-H. Chen, "Laboratory Characterization of Asphalt Mixes of SPS-1 Sections on US281," Road Materials and Pavement Design, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 439–453, Jan. 2002. DOI:

F. F. Al-khafaji, "The Effect of Combination and Addition of Some Mineral Fillers on Hot Mix Asphalt Performance," Journal of University of Babylon, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 336–347, 2015.

O. M. Kunene and D. Allopi, "Comparison Between Conditions of Major Roads Within and Outside the Port of Durban," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 363–367, Feb. 2013. DOI:

S. Oda, J. Leomar Fernandes, and J. S. Ildefonso, "Analysis of use of natural fibers and asphalt rubber binder in discontinuous asphalt mixtures," Construction and Building Materials, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 13–20, Jan. 2012. DOI:

H. Mohammed Mahan, "Behavior of permanent deformation in asphalt concrete pavements under temperature variation," Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 62–73, Mar. 2013.

A. Pandian, M. Vairavan, W. J T, and M. Uthayakumar, "Effect of Moisture Absorption Behavior on Mechanical Properties of Basalt Fibre Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites," Journal of Composites, vol. 2014, Mar. 2014, Art. no. 587980. DOI:

T. Baghaee Moghaddam, "Development Of High Modulus Asphalt Concrete Mix Desing Technology For Use On Ontario’s Highways," Ph.D. dissertation, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, 2019.

Y. Du, J. Chen, Z. Han, and W. Liu, "A review on solutions for improving rutting resistance of asphalt pavement and test methods," Construction and Building Materials, vol. 168, pp. 893–905, Apr. 2018. DOI:

A. Golalipour, E. Jamshidi, Y. Niazi, Z. Afsharikia, and M. Khadem, "Effect of Aggregate Gradation on Rutting of Asphalt Pavements," Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 53, pp. 440–449, Oct. 2012. DOI:

M. A. Rizvi, A. H. Khan, Z. ur Rehman, Z. Masoud, and A. Inam, "Effect of Fractured Aggregate Particles on Linear Stress Ratio of Aggregate and Resilience Properties of Asphalt Mixes—A Way Forward for Sustainable Pavements," Sustainability, vol. 13, no. 15, Jan. 2021, Art. no. 8630. DOI:

F. Alzaidy and A. H. K. Albayati, "A Comparison between Static and Repeated Load Test to Predict Asphalt Concrete Rut Depth," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 7363–7369, Aug. 2021. DOI:

F. Najm and N. Y. Ahmed, "Evaluation the Using of Local Aggregate in High Modulus Asphalt Concrete Layers," Civil and Environmental Research, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 28–41, 2016.

M. Q. Ismael and R. F. A. Al-Harjan, "Evaluation of Job-Mix Formula Tolerances as Related to Asphalt Mixtures Properties," Journal of Engineering, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 124–144, May 2018. DOI:

A. Aljubory, Z. T. Teama, H. T. Salman, and H. M. Abd Alkareem, "Effects of cellulose fibers on the properties of asphalt mixtures," Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 42, pp. 2941–2947, Jan. 2021. DOI:

M. Razahi and A. Chopra, "An Experimental Investigation of Using Sisal Fiber and Coir Fiber as An Additive in Stone Matrix Asphalt," International Journal of Advance Science and Technology, vol. 29, no. 10S, pp. 5111–5128, Jan. 2020.

SCRB Standard Specification for Roads and Bridges (Section R/9). Baghdad, Iraq: State Commission of Roads and Bridges, Ministry of Housing and Construction, 2003.

M. K. Shahad, "Assessment of the Durability of Stone Matrix Asphalt Concrete," M.S. thesis, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq, 2015.

K. Jadidi, M. Khalili, M. Karakouzian, and S. Amirkhanian, "Toughness, Tenacity and Maximum Initial Strength of Rubber Modified Asphalt Binders," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 3765–3769, Feb. 2019. DOI:


How to Cite

H. M. Abd Al Kareem and A. H. K. Albayati, “The Possibility of Minimizing Rutting Distress in Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 8063–8074, Feb. 2022.


Abstract Views: 399
PDF Downloads: 250

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share

Most read articles by the same author(s)