The Possibility of Minimizing Rutting Distress in Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course


  • H. M. Abd Al Kareem Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Iraq
  • A. H. K. Albayati Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Iraq
Volume: 12 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 8063-8074 | February 2022 |


The excessive permanent deformation (rutting) in asphalt-concrete pavements resulting from frequent repetitions of heavy axle loads is studied in this paper. Rutting gradually develops with additional load applications and appears as longitudinal depressions in the wheel path. There are many causes of the rutting of asphalt roads, such as poor asphalt mixing and poor continuous aggregate gradation. All factors affecting the mixture resistance to permanent deformation must be discussed, and all must be properly considered to reduce the rutting propensity of asphalt-aggregate mixtures. In this study, several mixtures were produced with the most common techniques in rutting resistance (using the most effective additives for each mixture), and their performance was compared with the (conventional) mixture currently used in Iraq. The tests focused on the asphalt-concrete mixture for wearing courses. Different mixtures types were tried, namely, dense hot asphalt mixture (HMA) with two different asphalt contents (4.7% and 5.3%), Open-Grade Friction Course (OGFC) mixture, Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) mixture, and Beton Bitumineux a Module Eleve (BBME). The modifiers included natural Sisal Fibers (SFs), Carbon Fibers (CFs), and mineral filler (hydrated lime, HL). Marshall test was carried out to find stability and flow values. Rutting was evaluated by the repeated load test for cylindrical specimens under two temperatures (40°C and 60°C) to obtain the permanent deformation parameters. The parameters were used as input to the VESYS 5W software to evaluate the rut depth during different times of design life under 7×10^6 Equivalent Single Axle Loads (ESALs). The results of the selected mixtures were compared with the mixture designed in the laboratory dense gradation mix Job-Mix Formula (JMF)) within the limits of the Iraqi specification (SCRB,2003). Manipulation of the aggregate gradation that is customary in the implementation of the local mixture showed that the best performance regarding rutting resistance was exhibited by JMF, which decreased the rut depth at 40°C and 60°C by 21.63mm and 44.304mm respectively, in comparison with the conventional mixture. Changing the aggregate gradation of the local mixture gives better performance in rutting resistance without additives or changing the percentage of asphalt, at the same cost.


HMA, SAM, sisal fibers, OGFC, carbon fibers, hydrated lime, Job Mix Formula, repeated load test, BBME, VESYS


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How to Cite

H. M. Abd Al Kareem and A. H. K. Albayati, “The Possibility of Minimizing Rutting Distress in Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 8063–8074, Feb. 2022.


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