The Effect of Geometric Parameters on the Strength of Stone Columns
Received: 12 June 2022 | Revised: 26 June 2022 | Accepted: 29 June 2022 | Online: 7 August 2022
Corresponding author: S. Saxena
Abstract-Many geotechnical sites are unsuitable for construction due to their low bearing capacity. In the present study, stone column technique has been analyzed for the ground improvement of soft clayey soil. The change in bearing capacity of stone columns with variation in static parameters has been estimated using Indian Standard Code 15284 (IS Code) - 2003, Bouassida’s method (1994), and Afshar's and Ghazavi's method (2014). From the analytical solution of the expression by the IS Code method for bearing capacity of the stone column, it is found that with the increase in diameter of the column, the bearing capacity of the stone column increases. Comparison of the results from the three methods has been conducted and it was found that values obtained from IS Code are very close to those obtained by the other two analytical methods. Also, the critical interpretation of the results shows that the IS Code gives safer design values for a wide range of the static parameters. The results of the IS Code were compared with the experimental findings to evaluate the ability of the method to design the actual load carrying capacity of the stone column.
Keywords:ground improvement, bearing capacity, reinforced soil, clay
H. B. Seed and J. R. Booker, "Stabilization of Potentially Liquefiable Sand Deposits Using Gravel Drains," Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, vol. 103, no. 7, pp. 757–768, Jul. 1977. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/AJGEB6.0000453
J. K. Mitchell, "Soil improvement-state of the art report," in 10th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Rotterdam, Netherlands, Jun. 1981, vol. 4, pp. 509–566.
R. D. Barksdale and R. C. Bachus, "Design and construction of stone columns, vol. I.," Georgia Institute of Technology, Tech Report FHWA/RD-83/026;SCEGIT-83-104, Dec. 1983.
R. K. Rowe and A. L. Li, "Geosynthetic-reinforced embankments over soft foundations," Geosynthetics International, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 50–85, Jan. 2005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1680/gein.18.104.22.168424
L. Briancon and P. Villard, "Design of geosynthetic-reinforced platforms spanning localized sinkholes," Geotextiles and Geomembranes, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 416–428, Oct. 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2007.12.005
M. Ghazavi and A. A. Lavasan, "Interference effect of shallow foundations constructed on sand reinforced with geosynthetics," Geotextiles and Geomembranes, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 404–415, Oct. 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2008.02.003
P. K. Basudhar, P. M. Dixit, A. Gharpure, and K. Deb, "Finite element analysis of geotextile-reinforced sand-bed subjected to strip loading," Geotextiles and Geomembranes, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 91–99, Feb. 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2007.04.002
K. Praveen and L. B. Roy, "Study Of Groundwater Quality For Irrigation Purpose – A Case Study Of Paliganj Distributary, Bihar, India," Natural Volatiles and Essential Oils, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 3461–3477, 2021.
R. Lal Bahadur and P. K, "Study of soil erosion by using remote sensing and GIS techniques in Sone command area in Bihar, India," Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 62, pp. 1664–1670, Jan. 2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2022.04.739
K. Praveen and L. B. Roy, "Assessment of Groundwater Quality Using Water Quality Indices: A Case Study of Paliganj Distributary, Bihar, India," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 8199–8203, Feb. 2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.4696
L. B. Roy and K. Praveen, "Study of ET0 by Using Soft Computing Techniques in the Eastern Gandak Project in Bihar, India—A Case Study," in Soft Computing: Theories and Applications, R. Kumar, C. W. Ahn, T. K. Sharma, O. P. Verma, and A. Agarwal, Eds. New York, NY, USA: Springer, 2022, pp. 515–526. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-0707-4_47
N. Moreau and Marry, "Foundations-emploi du sable," Annales des Ponts and Chaussees, Memoirs, no. 224, pp. 171–214, 1835.
D. A. Greenwood, "Mechanical improvement of soils below ground surface," in Ground Engineering Conference, Jan. 1970, pp. 11–22.
J. M. O. Hugher and N. J. Withers, "Reinforcing of soft cohesive soils with stone columns," Ground Engineering, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 42–49, Apr. 1974.
K. Deb and A. Behera, "Rate of Consolidation of Stone Column–Improved Ground Considering Variable Permeability and Compressibility in Smear Zone," International Journal of Geomechanics, vol. 17, no. 6, Jun. 2017, Art. no. 04016128. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GM.1943-5622.0000830
M. A. Soomro, K. F. Memon, M. A. Soomro, A. Memon, and M. A. Keerio, "Single Pile Settlement and Load Transfer Mechanism due to Excavation in Silty Clay," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 2485–2492, Feb. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.1666
K. R. Datye and S. S. Nagaraju, "Installation and testing of rammed stone columns," in Proceedings of IGS Specialty Session, Bangalor, India, 1975, pp. 101–104.
S. Murugesan and K. Rajagopal, "Studies on the Behavior of Single and Group of Geosynthetic Encased Stone Columns," Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 136, no. 1, pp. 129–139, Jan. 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0000187
J. T. Shahu and Y. R. Reddy, "Clayey Soil Reinforced with Stone Column Group: Model Tests and Analyses," Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 137, no. 12, pp. 1265–1274, Dec. 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0000552
R. R. Maurya, B. V. R. Sharma, and D. N. Naresh, "Footing load tests on single and group of stone columns," in 16th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Osaka, Japan, Sep. 2005, pp. 1385–1388.
A. L. Bell, "Report on performance of vibro replacement ground improvement beneath embankment at Stockton," Keller Internal Report, 1993.
D. A. Mangnejo, S. J. Oad, S. A. Kalhoro, S. Ahmed, F. H. Laghari, and Z. A. Siyal, "Numerical Analysis of Soil Slope Stabilization by Soil Nailing Technique," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 4469–4473, Aug. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2859
A. P. Ambily and S. R. Gandhi, "Behavior of Stone Columns Based on Experimental and FEM Analysis," Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 133, no. 4, pp. 405–415, Apr. 2007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2007)133:4(405)
M. Bouassida, P. De Buhan, and L. Dormieux, "Bearing capacity of a foundation resting on a soil reinforced by a group of columns," Geotechnique, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 25–34, Mar. 1995. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.1922.214.171.124
N. Nayak, "Stone Columns and Monitoring Instruments," in Proceedings Symposium on soil and rock improvement: geotextiles, reinforced earth and modren piling techniques, Bangkok, Thailand, 1982.
Z. Guetif, M. Bouassida, and J. M. Debats, "Improved soft clay characteristics due to stone column installation," Computers and Geotechnics, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 104–111, Mar. 2007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2006.09.008
J. Nazari Afshar and M. Ghazavi, "A simple analytical method for calculation of bearing capacity of stone-column," International Journal of Civil Engineering, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 15–25, Jan. 2014.
S. Basack, B. Indraratna, C. Rujikiatkamjorn, and F. Siahaan, "Modeling the Stone Column Behavior in Soft Ground with Special Emphasis on Lateral Deformation," Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 143, no. 6, Jun. 2017, Art. no. 04017016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0001652
A. Firoozfar, A. Rostami, H. Ghaderi, H. Zamani, and A. Rostamkhani, "Assessing the Effects of Length, Slope and Distance between Piles on the Bearing Capacity of a Pile Group under Axial Loading in Granular Soil," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 1894–1899, Oct. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.1352
IS 15284 - Part 1(2003), Design and Construction for ground improvement - Guidelines. New Delhi, India: Bureau of Indian Standards, 2003.
S. Narasimha Rao, M. Madhiyan, and Y. V. S. N. Prasad "Influence of bearing area on the behavior of stone columns", Proceedings of Indian Geotechnic Conference, Calcutta, India, 1992, pp. 235-237.
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 497
PDF Downloads: 357
Copyright (c) 2022 S. Saxena; L. B. Roy
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.