The Optimal High Heating Value of the Torrefied Coconut Shells
Received: 21 March 2022 | Revised: 31 March 2022 | Accepted: 4 April 2022 | Online: 13 April 2022
Coconut is a biomass resource that is abundant in tropical countries. In 2020, the Philippines planted 347 million coconut trees that produced 14.7 million tons of coconuts. The coconut shells (endocarp) are considered a waste material, which comprise 15.18% of each fruit and account for 2.2 million tons. The calorific value of raw coconut shells is 30.79MJ/kg. When torrefied at 275°C for 30 minutes holding time, the calorific value reached the optimal of 34.37MJ/kg, representing an increase of 11.64%. The mass yield (My) was 90.10% and the energy density was 111.64%, resulting in an energy yield of 100.59%.
Keywords:coconut, shells, torrefaction, downdraft, gasifier, gasification, gas synthesis
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