The Optimal High Heating Value of the Torrefied Coconut Shells

Authors

  • R. Espina School of Engineering and Architecture, Ateneo de Davao University, Philippines
  • R. Barroca School of Engineering and Architecture, Ateneo de Davao University, Philippines
  • M. L. S. Abundo Engineering Graduate Program, School of Engineering, University of San Carlos (USC), Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines | Rolls-Royce@NTU Corporate Lab, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Abstract

Coconut is a biomass resource that is abundant in tropical countries. In 2020, the Philippines planted 347 million coconut trees that produced 14.7 million tons of coconuts. The coconut shells (endocarp) are considered a waste material, which comprise 15.18% of each fruit and account for 2.2 million tons. The calorific value of raw coconut shells is 30.79MJ/kg. When torrefied at 275°C for 30 minutes holding time, the calorific value reached the optimal of 34.37MJ/kg, representing an increase of 11.64%. The mass yield (My) was 90.10% and the energy density was 111.64%, resulting in an energy yield of 100.59%.

Keywords:

coconut, shells, torrefaction, downdraft, gasifier, gasification, gas synthesis

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How to Cite

[1]
R. Espina, R. Barroca, and M. L. S. Abundo, “The Optimal High Heating Value of the Torrefied Coconut Shells”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 8605–8610, Jun. 2022.

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