The Dynamics of the Radiated Field Near a Mobile Phone Connected to a 4G or 5G Network


  • D. B. Deaconescu Doctoral School of Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania
  • A. M. Buda Nicolae Balcescu Land Forces Academy | Politehnica University of Bucharest, Romania
  • D. Vatamanu Faculty of Engineering, Lucian Blaga University | Nicolae Balcescu Land Forces Academy, Romania
  • S. Miclaus Nicolae Balcescu Land Forces Academy, Romania
Volume: 12 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 8101-8106 | February 2022 |


Characterizing the time variations of signals emitted by mobile terminals provides complementary information to health authorities, especially with the increase of frequency and energy of radiation towards millimeter waves. This experimental work aimed to quantify and classify the time variability of the electric field level measured at 10cm from a mobile phone connected sequentially to a 4th and 5th generation mobile network. Statistic analysis was performed on data from real-time spectrum analyzers, while self-similarity was computed by first recurrence plots of the radiated emissions, corresponding to five different types of mobile applications. Moreover, specificities to the communication standard and the type of application were identified.


human exposure, 5G NR, mobile phone, LTE, field variability


Download data is not yet available.


S. Parkvall, E. Dahlman, A. Furuskar, and M. Frenne, "NR: The New 5G Radio Access Technology," IEEE Communications Standards Magazine, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 24–30, Dec. 2017. DOI:

T. S. Rappaport et al., "Millimeter Wave Mobile Communications for 5G Cellular: It Will Work!," IEEE Access, vol. 1, pp. 335–349, 2013. DOI:

F. Rinaldi, A. Raschellà, and S. Pizzi, "5G NR system design: a concise survey of key features and capabilities," Wireless Networks, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 5173–5188, Nov. 2021. DOI:

H. Singh, N. Mittal, A. Gupta, Y. Kumar, M. Woźniak, and A. Waheed, "Metamaterial Integrated Folded Dipole Antenna with Low SAR for 4G, 5G and NB-IoT Applications," Electronics, vol. 10, no. 21, Jan. 2021, Art. no. 2612. DOI:

"ETSI TS 138 101-1 V15.3.0 (2018-10) 5G; NR; User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception; Part 1: Range 1 Standalone (3GPP TS 38.101-1 version 15.3.0 Release 15)," ETSI, France, RTS/TSGR-0438101-1vf30, Oct. 2018.

"ETSI TS 138 101-2 V15.3.0 (2018-10) 5G; NR; User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception; Part 2: Range 2 Standalone (3GPP TS 38.101-2 version 15.3.0 Release 15)," ETSI, France, RTS/TSGR-0438101-2vf30, Oct. 2018.

D. QingXia, D. Gang, and C. HaiYan, "Research on Key Technology of TD-LTE Standard 4G Mobile Communications Network," The Open Cybernetics & Systemics Journal, vol. 9, no. 1, Sep. 2015. DOI:

S. Tabbane, "4G to 5G networks and standard releases," Bangkok, Thailand, Oct. 2019.

F. Schaich and T. Wild, "Subcarrier spacing - a neglected degree of freedom?," in 2015 IEEE 16th International Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (SPAWC), Jun. 2015, pp. 56–60. DOI:

"The 3GPP Specification series TS. 38," 3GPP, France, 2017.

D. Franci et al., "Experimental Procedure for Fifth Generation (5G) Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Measurement and Maximum Power Extrapolation for Human Exposure Assessment," Environments, vol. 7, no. 3, Mar. 2020, Art. no. 22. DOI:

H. Keller, "On the Assessment of Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields Transmitted by 5G NR Base Stations," Health Physics, vol. 117, no. 5, pp. 541–545, Nov. 2019. DOI:

Y. Kryukov, D. Pokamestov, and E. Rogozhnikov, "Cell search and synchronization in 5G NR," ITM Web of Conferences, vol. 30, 2019, Art. no. 04007. DOI:

E. G. Larsson, O. Edfors, F. Tufvesson, and T. L. Marzetta, "Massive MIMO for next generation wireless systems," IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 186–195, Feb. 2014. DOI:

H. Alsaif, "Extreme Wide Band MIMO Antenna System for Fifth Generation Wireless Systems," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 5492–5495, Apr. 2020. DOI:

D. T. T. My, H. N. B. Phuong, T. T. Huong, and B. T. M. Tu, "Design of a Four-Element Array Antenna for 5G Cellular Wireless Networks," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 6259–6263, Oct. 2020. DOI:

S. Ghnimi, A. Nasri, and A. Gharsallah, "Study of a New Design of the Planar Inverted-F Antenna for Mobile Phone Handset Applications," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 5270–5275, Feb. 2020. DOI:

D. Franci et al., "An Experimental Investigation on the Impact of Duplexing and Beamforming Techniques in Field Measurements of 5G Signals," Electronics, vol. 9, no. 2, Feb. 2020, Art. no. 223. DOI:

M. D. Migliore et al., "A New Paradigm in 5G Maximum Power Extrapolation for Human Exposure Assessment: Forcing gNB Traffic Toward the Measurement Equipment," IEEE Access, vol. 9, pp. 101946–101958, 2021. DOI:

S. Adda et al., "A Theoretical and Experimental Investigation on the Measurement of the Electromagnetic Field Level Radiated by 5G Base Stations," IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 101448–101463, 2020. DOI:

D. Pinchera, M. D. Migliore, and F. Schettino, "Optimizing Antenna Arrays for Spatial Multiplexing: Towards 6G Systems," IEEE Access, vol. 9, pp. 53276–53291, 2021. DOI:

S. Aerts et al., "In-situ Measurement Methodology for the Assessment of 5G NR Massive MIMO Base Station Exposure at Sub-6 GHz Frequencies," IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 184658–184667, 2019. DOI:

"Determination of RF field strength, power density and SAR in the vicinity of radiocommunication base stations for the purpose of evaluating human exposure," IEC, Switzerland, IEC 62232:2017, Nov. 2019.

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), "Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields (100 kHz to 300 GHz)," Health Physics, vol. 118, no. 5, pp. 483–524, May 2020. DOI:

5G and Health. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Health, 2019.

L. Chiaraviglio et al., "Planning 5G Networks Under EMF Constraints: State of the Art and Vision," IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 51021–51037, 2018. DOI:

"The impact of RF-EMF exposure limits stricter than the ICNIRP or IEEE guidelines on 4G and 5G mobile network deployment," ITU - T, Switzerland, Series K-Supplement 14, May 2018.

S. M. and P. Bechet, "Non-Stationary Statistics with Amplitude Probability Density Function for Exposure and Energy Density Reporting Near a Mobile Phone Running 4G Applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, vol. 89, pp. 151–159, 2020. DOI:

M. Simkó and M.-O. Mattsson, "5G Wireless Communication and Health Effects—A Pragmatic Review Based on Available Studies Regarding 6 to 100 GHz," International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 16, no. 18, Jan. 2019, Art. no. 3406. DOI:

E. Neufeld, T. Samaras, and N. Kuster, "Discussion on Spatial and Time Averaging Restrictions Within the Electromagnetic Exposure Safety Framework in the Frequency Range Above 6 GHz for Pulsed and Localized Exposures," Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 164–168, 2020. DOI:

S. Miclaus, A. Sarbu, and P. Bechet, "Using Poincare Plots for Feature Extraction of the Dynamics of Electromagnetic Field Exposures when Using Different Protocols of Wi-Fi Communications," in 2021 8th international Conference on wireless communication and sensor networks, New York, NY, USA, Jan. 2021, pp. 32–38. DOI:


How to Cite

D. B. Deaconescu, A. M. Buda, D. Vatamanu, and S. Miclaus, “The Dynamics of the Radiated Field Near a Mobile Phone Connected to a 4G or 5G Network”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 8101–8106, Feb. 2022.


Abstract Views: 345
PDF Downloads: 325

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share

Most read articles by the same author(s)