Magnetite Particle Presence in the Human Brain: A Computational Dosimetric Study to Emphasize the Need of a Complete Assessment of the Electromagnetic Power Deposition at 3.5 GHz

Authors

  • D. Vatamanu Faculty of Engineering, Lucian Blaga University | Nicolae Balcescu Land Forces Academy, Romania
  • S. Miclaus Nicolae Balcescu Land Forces Academy, Romania
Volume: 11 | Issue: 5 | Pages: 7720-7729 | October 2021 | https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.4466

Abstract

The growing evidence of increased magnetite nanoparticles (both endo- and exo-genic) in the human brain raises the importance of assessing the entire power deposition when electromagnetic waves at GHz frequencies propagate in such tissues. This frequency range corresponds to many popular portable communication devices that emit radiation close to a human's head. At these frequencies, the current dosimetric numerical codes can not accurately compute the magnetic losses part. This is due to the lack of an implemented computational algorithm based on solving the coupled Maxwell and Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations, in the case of magneto-dielectrics, considering eddy currents losses and specific properties of magnetic sub-millimetric particles. This paper focuses on analyzing the limits and the inconsistencies when using commercial dosimetric numerical software to analyze the total absorbed power in brain models having ferrimagnetic content and being exposed to 3.5GHz electromagnetic waves. Magnetic losses computed using Polder’s permeability tensor as constitutive relation lead to unreliable results. However, using such software can provide a preliminary view of the electromagnetic impact of ultra- and super-high frequencies on magnetic-dielectric tissues.

Keywords:

magnetic brain, magnetite particles, magnetic-dielectric, microwaves dosimetry, power loss density

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

S. Miclaus, M. Racuciu, and and P. Bechet, "H -Field Contribution to the Electromagnetic Energy Deposition in Tissues Similar to the Brain But Containing Ferrimagnetic Particles, During Use of Face-Held Radio Transceivers," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, vol. 73, pp. 49–60, 2017.

S. Miclaus, C. Iftode, and and A. Miclaus, "Would the Human Brain Be Able to Erect Specific Effects Due to the Magnetic Field Component of an UHF Field via Magnetite Nanoparticles?," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, vol. 69, pp. 23–36, 2018.

J. L. Kirschvink, A. Kobayashi-Kirschvink, and B. J. Woodford, "Magnetite biomineralization in the human brain.," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 89, no. 16, pp. 7683–7687, Aug. 1992.

B. A. Maher et al., "Magnetite pollution nanoparticles in the human brain," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 113, no. 39, pp. 10797–10801, Sep. 2016.

L. Calderón-Garcidueñas et al., "Combustion- and friction-derived magnetic air pollution nanoparticles in human hearts," Environmental Research, vol. 176, Sep. 2019, Art. no. 108567.

D. Lu et al., "Chemical multi-fingerprinting of exogenous ultrafine particles in human serum and pleural effusion," Nature Communications, vol. 11, no. 1, May 2020, Art. no. 2567.

R. Gieré, "Magnetite in the human body: Biogenic vs. anthropogenic," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 113, no. 43, pp. 11986–11987, Oct. 2016.

Q. Zhang et al., "Separation and Tracing of Anthropogenic Magnetite Nanoparticles in the Urban Atmosphere," Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 54, no. 15, pp. 9274–9284, Aug. 2020.

J. L. Kirschvink, "Microwave absorption by magnetite: A possible mechanism for coupling nonthermal levels of radiation to biological systems," Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 187–194, 1996.

F. C. Størmer, "Magnetite in dura and pia mater in human brain. A shield against electromagnetic radiation?," Medical Hypotheses, vol. 82, no. 1, Jan. 2014, Art. no. 123.

P. C. Fannin, I. Malaescu, C. N. Marin, and N. Stefu, "Microwave propagation parameters in magnetic fluids," The European Physical Journal E, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 299–303, Jul. 2009.

P. C. Fannin, C. N. Marin, I. Malaescu, and N. Stefu, "Microwave dielectric properties of magnetite colloidal particles in magnetic fluids," Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, vol. 19, no. 3, Jan. 2007, Art. no. 036104.

E. M. Alfsen, F. C. Størmer, A. Njå, and L. Walløe, "A proposed tandem mechanism for memory storage in neurons involving magnetite and prions," Medical Hypotheses, vol. 119, pp. 98–101, Oct. 2018.

M. A. Busquets, A. Espargaró, R. Sabaté, and J. Estelrich, "Magnetic Nanoparticles Cross the Blood-Brain Barrier: When Physics Rises to a Challenge," Nanomaterials, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 2231–2248, Dec. 2015.

H. Nittby et al., "Nonthermal GSM RF and ELF EMF effects upon rat BBB permeability," The Environmentalist, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 140–148, Jun. 2011.

S. Khan and D. Cohen, "Using the magnetoencephalogram to noninvasively measure magnetite in the living human brain," Human Brain Mapping, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 1654–1665, 2019.

J. Hammond, B. A. Maher, I. A. M. Ahmed, and D. Allsop, "Variation in the concentration and regional distribution of magnetic nanoparticles in human brains, with and without Alzheimer’s disease, from the UK," Scientific Reports, vol. 11, no. 1, Apr. 2021, Art. no. 9363.

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radio Protection, "Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-varying Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields (up to 300GHz)," Health Physics, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 494–522, Apr. 1998.

"IEEE C95.1-2019 - IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields, 0 Hz to 300 GHz." [Online]. Available: https://standards.ieee.org/standard/C95_1-2019.html.

I. Belyaev, "Duration of Exposure and Dose in Assessing Nonthermal Biological Effects of Microwaves," in Dosimetry in Bioelectromagnetics, Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2017.

A. A. Pilla, "Nonthermal electromagnetic fields: From first messenger to therapeutic applications," Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 123–136, Jun. 2013.

L. B. Salford, H. Nittby, and B. R. R. Persson, "Effects of Electromagnetic Fields From Wireless Communication upon the Blood-Brain Barrier," in A Rationale for Biologically-Based Exposure Standards for Low-Intensity Electromagnetic Radiation (section 10), BioInitiative Working Group, 2012.

P. Shrivastava and T. R. Rao, "Investigations of SAR Distributions and Temperature Elevation on Human Body at 60 GHz with Corrugated Antipodal Linear Tapered Slot Antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, vol. 59, pp. 111–121, 2017.

T. Hamed and M. Maqsood, "SAR Calculation & Temperature Response of Human Body Exposure to Electromagnetic Radiations at 28, 40 and 60 GHz mmWave Frequencies," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, vol. 73, pp. 47–59, 2018.

J. Lan, T. Hong, X. Liang, and and G. Du, "Evaluation of Microwave Microdosimetry for Human Eyes with Glasses Exposed to Wireless Eyewear Devices at Phone Call State," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, vol. 63, pp. 71–81, 2018.

K. Y. Yazdandoost and I. Laakso, "Numerical Modeling of Electromagnetic Field Exposure from 5G Mobile Communications at 10 GHz," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, vol. 72, pp. 61–67, 2018.

M. Munde, A. Nandgaonkar, and and S. Deosarkar, "Low Specific Absorption Rate Antenna Using Electromagnetic Band Gap Structure for Long Term Evolution Band 3 Application," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, vol. 80, pp. 23–34, 2019.

M. Munde, A. Nandgaonkar, and and S. Deosarkar, "Dual Feed Wideband Annular Ring Microstrip Antenna with Circular DGS for Reduced SAR," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, vol. 88, pp. 175–195, 2020.

W. E. May, I. Sfar, J. M. Ribero, and and L. Osman, "Design of Low-Profile and Safe Low SAR Tri-Band Textile EBG-Based Antenna for IoT Applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, vol. 98, pp. 85–94, 2021.

K. Mahmoud, A. Baz, W. Alhakami, H. Alhakami, and and A. M. Montaser, "The Performance of Circularly Polarized Phased Sub-Array Antennas for 5G Laptop Devices Investigating the Radiation Effects," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, vol. 110, pp. 267–283, 2021.

G. M. J. V. Leeuwen, J. J. W. Lagendijk, B. J. A. M. V. Leersum, A. P. M. Zwamborn, S. N. Hornsleth, and A. N. T. J. Kotte, "Calculation of change in brain temperatures due to exposure to a mobile phone," Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 2367–2379, Aug. 1999.

P. Bernardi, M. Cavagnaro, S. Pisa, and E. Piuzzi, "Specific absorption rate and temperature increases in the head of a cellular-phone user," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 1118–1126, Jul. 2000.

A. Drossos, V. Santomaa, and N. Kuster, "The dependence of electromagnetic energy absorption upon human head tissue composition in the frequency range of 300-3000 MHz," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 1988–1995, Nov. 2000.

A. Hirata and T. Shiozawa, "Correlation of maximum temperature increase and peak SAR in the human head due to handset antennas," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 1834–1841, Jul. 2003.

A. Hirata and T. Shiozawa, "Correlation of maximum temperature increase and peak SAR in the human head due to handset antennas," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 1834–1841, Jul. 2003.

A. Hirata, M. Fujimoto, T. Asano, J. Wang, O. Fujiwara, and T. Shiozawa, "Correlation between maximum temperature increase and peak SAR with different average schemes and masses," IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 569–578, Aug. 2006.

T. Samaras, E. Kalampaliki, and J. N. Sahalos, "Influence of Thermophysiological Parameters on the Calculations of Temperature Rise in the Head of Mobile Phone Users," IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 936–939, Nov. 2007.

A. Hirata and O. Fujiwara, "The correlation between mass-averaged SAR and temperature elevation in the human head model exposed to RF near-fields from 1 to 6 GHz," Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 54, no. 23, pp. 7227–7238, Nov. 2009.

I. Laakso, R. Morimoto, A. Hirata, and T. Onishi, "Computational Dosimetry of the Human Head Exposed to Near-Field Microwaves Using Measured Blood Flow," IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 739–746, Apr. 2017.

R. Morimoto, I. Laakso, V. D. Santis, and A. Hirata, "Relationship between peak spatial-averaged specific absorption rate and peak temperature elevation in human head in frequency range of 1–30 GHz," Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 61, no. 14, pp. 5406–5425, Jul. 2016.

CST Studio Suite (2019). CST Microwave Studio.

S. Ghnimi, A. Nasri, and A. Gharsallah, "Study of a New Design of the Planar Inverted-F Antenna for Mobile Phone Handset Applications," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 5270–5275, Feb. 2020.

S. K. Bitra and S. Miriyala, "An Ultra-Wideband Band Pass Filter using Metal Insulator Metal Waveguide for Nanoscale Applications," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 7247–7250, Jun. 2021.

K. Mekki, O. Necibi, C. Boussetta, and A. Gharsallah, "Miniaturization of Circularly Polarized Patch Antenna for RFID Reader Applications," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 5655–5659, Jun. 2020.

M. Jazirehpour and S. A. Seyyed Ebrahimi, "Effect of aspect ratio on dielectric, magnetic, percolative and microwave absorption properties of magnetite nanoparticles," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 638, pp. 188–196, Jul. 2015.

M. Jazirehpour and S. A. S. Ebrahimi, "Synthesis of magnetite nanostructures with complex morphologies and effect of these morphologies on magnetic and electromagnetic properties," Ceramics International, vol. 42, no. 15, pp. 16512–16520, Nov. 2016.

H. Khurshid et al., "Anisotropy effects in magnetic hyperthermia: A comparison between spherical and cubic exchange-coupled FeO/Fe3O4 nanoparticles," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 117, no. 17, May 2015, Art. no. 17A337.

X. Liu et al., "Shape-dependent magnetic and microwave absorption properties of iron oxide nanocrystals," Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 192, pp. 339–348, May 2017.

S. Couture, X. Wang, A. Goncharov, and V. Lomakin, "A coupled micromagnetic-Maxwell equations solver based on the finite element method," Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, vol. 493, Jan. 2020, Art. no. 165672.

J. Leliaert and J. Mulkers, "Tomorrow’s micromagnetic simulations," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 125, no. 18, May 2019, Art. no. 180901.

S. Couture and V. Lomakin, "Electromagnetic-micromagnetic simulator for magnetization-eddy current dynamics in magnetic materials and devices," in 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting, Jul. 2017, pp. 1117–1118.

Z. Yao, R. U. Tok, T. Itoh, and Y. E. Wang, "A Multiscale Unconditionally Stable Time-Domain (MUST) Solver Unifying Electrodynamics and Micromagnetics," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 2683–2696, Jun. 2018.

H. Mosallaei and K. Sarabandi, "Magneto-dielectrics in electromagnetics: concept and applications," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1558–1567, Jun. 2004.

Q. Nguyen and A. I. Zaghloul, "Susceptibility of Nanoparticles Studied by Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert and Snoek’s Equations," in 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and USNC-URSI Radio Science Meeting, Jul. 2019, pp. 1299–1300.

J. Leliaert, A. Vansteenkiste, A. Coene, L. Dupré, and B. Van Waeyenberge, "Vinamax: a macrospin simulation tool for magnetic nanoparticles," Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 309–317, Apr. 2015.

Ansys HFSS - 3D High Frequency Electromagnetic Simulation Software. Ansys.

I. Kong, S. Hj Ahmad, M. Hj Abdullah, D. Hui, A. Nazlim Yusoff, and D. Puryanti, "Magnetic and microwave absorbing properties of magnetite–thermoplastic natural rubber nanocomposites," Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, vol. 322, no. 21, pp. 3401–3409, Nov. 2010.

"Tissue dielectric properties," IT’IS Foundation. https://itis.swiss/virtual-population/tissue-properties/database/dielectric-properties (accessed Sep. 28, 2021).

Downloads

How to Cite

[1]
D. Vatamanu and S. Miclaus, “Magnetite Particle Presence in the Human Brain: A Computational Dosimetric Study to Emphasize the Need of a Complete Assessment of the Electromagnetic Power Deposition at 3.5 GHz”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 7720–7729, Oct. 2021.

Metrics

Abstract Views: 55
PDF Downloads: 49

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share