A Battery Voltage Level Monitoring System for Telecommunication Towers


  • R. Uwamahoro School of Computational and Communication Sciences and Engineering, The Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Tanzania
  • N. Mduma School of Computational and Communication Sciences and Engineering, The Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Tanzania
  • D. Machuve Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science and Technology, Tanzania
Volume: 11 | Issue: 6 | Pages: 7875-7880 | December 2021 | https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.4550


Voltage fluctuations in batteries form a major challenge the telecommunication towers face. These fluctuations mostly occur due to poor management and the lack of a battery voltage level monitoring system. The current paper presents a battery voltage-level monitoring system to be used in telecommunication towers. The proposed solution is incorporated with a centralized mobile application dashboard for accessing the live data of the installed battery, integrated with voltage-level, current, temperature, fire, and gas sensors. An Arduino Uno microcontroller board is used to process and analyze the collected data from the sensors. The Global Service Message (GSM) module is used to monitor and store data to the cloud. Users are alerted in the case of low voltage, fire, and increase in harmful gases in the tower through Short Message Service (SMS). The experiment was conducted at Ngorongoro and Manyara telecommunication towers. The developed system can be used in accessing battery information remotely while allowing real-time continuous monitoring of battery usage. The proposed battery voltage-level monitoring system contributes to the elimination of battery hazards in towers. Therefore, the proposed battery voltage level monitoring system can be adopted by telecommunication tower engineers for the reduction of voltage fluctuation risks.


renewable energy, telecommunication towers, dashboard, GSM Sim 800L module, battery voltage level monitoring


Download data is not yet available.


J. N. Bhanutej and R. C. Naidu, "A 7-level inverter with less number of switches for grid-tied PV applications," International Journal of Advanced Technology and Engineering Exploration, vol. 8, no. 78, pp. 631–642, 2021, https://doi.org/10.19101/IJATEE.2021.874090.

"Growing at a slower pace, world population is expected to reach 9.7 billion in 2050 and could peak at nearly 11 billion around 2100 | UN DESA," United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. https://www.un.org/development/desa/en/news/population/world-population-prospects-2019.html (accessed Nov. 06, 2021).

"Africa’s population will double by 2050," The Economist, Mar. 26, 2020.

K. Kaygusuz, "Energy for sustainable development: A case of developing countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 1116–1126, Feb. 2012, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.11.013.

"Report: Universal Access to Sustainable Energy Will Remain Elusive Without Addressing Inequalities," Jun. 2021, Accessed: Nov. 06, 2021. [Online]. Available:

L. Odarno, E. Sawe, M. Swai, M. J. J. Katyega, and A. Lee, Accelerating Mini-grid Deployment in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from Tanzania. Washington, DC, USA: World Resources Institutes, 2017.

R. Kaur, V. Krishnasamy, N. K. Kandasamy, and S. Kumar, "Discrete Multiobjective Grey Wolf Algorithm Based Optimal Sizing and Sensitivity Analysis of PV-Wind-Battery System for Rural Telecom Towers," IEEE Systems Journal, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 729–737, Mar. 2020, https://doi.org/10.1109/JSYST.2019.2912899.

"TANZANIA: Greenlight energises 1.5 million people with solar kits," Afrik 21, Mar. 27, 2020. https://www.afrik21.africa/en/tanzania-greenlight-energises-1-5-million-people-with-solar-kits/ (accessed Nov. 06, 2021).

B. Y. Lucien, J. B. Byiringiro, B. W. Abraham, G. B. Aristide, and K. Célestin, "Evaluation of the Criteria in the Choice of Energy Storage or Non-Storage in Photovoltaic Systems in the Sahelian Zone," Energy and Power Engineering, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 236–242, Jun. 2021, https://doi.org/10.4236/epe.2021.136016.

M. H. Chakrabarti, S. A. Hajimolana, F. S. Mjalli, M. Saleem, and I. Mustafa, "Redox Flow Battery for Energy Storage," Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 723–739, Apr. 2013, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13369-012-0356-5.

Z. Yi, W. Dong, and A. H. Etemadi, "A Unified Control and Power Management Scheme for PV-Battery-Based Hybrid Microgrids for Both Grid-Connected and Islanded Modes," IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 5975–5985, Nov. 2018, https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2017.2700332.

Q. Li, Y. Liu, S. Guo, and H. Zhou, "Solar energy storage in the rechargeable batteries," Nano Today, vol. 16, pp. 46–60, Oct. 2017, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nantod.2017.08.007.

P. K. Dalela, S. Basu, A. Singh, S. Majumdar, N. Nagpal, and V. Tyagi, "Geo-intelligence based carbon footprint monitoring and prediction of suitable renewable energy technology system for mobile towers," in IEEE International Conference on Advanced Networks and Telecommuncations Systems, New Delhi, India, Dec. 2014, pp. 1–5, https://doi.org/10.1109/ANTS.2014.7057244.

Y. Kassem, H. Gokcekus, and H. S. A. Lagili, "A Techno-Economic Viability Analysis of the Two-Axis Tracking Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System for 25 Selected Coastal Mediterranean Cities," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 7508–7514, Aug. 2021, https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.4251.

R. K. Lattanzio and C. E. Clark, "Environmental Effects of Battery Electric and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles," Jun. 2020, Accessed: Nov. 06, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://trid.trb.org/view/1718426.

T. Gao, Z. Wang, S. Chen, and L. Guo, "Hazardous characteristics of charge and discharge of lithium-ion batteries under adiabatic environment and hot environment," International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 141, pp. 419–431, Oct. 2019, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.06.075.

A. Nedjalkov et al., "Toxic Gas Emissions from Damaged Lithium Ion Batteries—Analysis and Safety Enhancement Solution," Batteries, vol. 2, no. 1, Mar. 2016, Art. no. 5, https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries2010005.

H. Sugihara, K. Yokoyama, O. Saeki, K. Tsuji, and T. Funaki, "Economic and Efficient Voltage Management Using Customer-Owned Energy Storage Systems in a Distribution Network With High Penetration of Photovoltaic Systems," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 102–111, Feb. 2013, https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2012.2196529.

N. L. M. Azemi and N. Wahid, "Uncertainty in internet of things: a review," International Journal of Advanced Technology and Engineering Exploration, vol. 8, no. 75, pp. 422–431, 2021, https://doi.org/10.19101/IJATEE.2020.762115.

S. Rawat and T. Arjariya, "An efficient Association based Optimization technique for Web pages," International Journal of Advanced Technology and Engineering Exploration, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 54–59, 2015.

F. Wortmann and K. Fluchter, "Internet of Things," Business & Information Systems Engineering, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 221–224, Jun. 2015, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12599-015-0383-3.

B. F. Alshammari and M. T. Chughtai, "IoT Gas Leakage Detector and Warning Generator," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 6142–6146, Aug. 2020, https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3712.

M. A. Hannan, Md. M. Hoque, A. Hussain, Y. Yusof, and P. J. Ker, "State-of-the-Art and Energy Management System of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Vehicle Applications: Issues and Recommendations," IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 19362–19378, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2817655.

M. Maltezo et al., "Arduino-based battery monitoring system with state of charge and remaining useful time estimation," International Journal of Advanced Technology and Engineering Exploration, vol. 8, no. 76, pp. 432–444, Mar. 2021, https://doi.org/10.19101/IJATEE.2021.874023.

D. K. Dhaked, Y. Gopal, and D. Birla, "Battery Charging Optimization of Solar Energy based Telecom Sites in India," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 5041–5046, Dec. 2019, https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3121.

T. V. Krishna, M. K. Maharana, and C. K. Panigrahi, "Integrated Design and Control of Renewable Energy Sources for Energy Management," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 5857–5863, Jun. 2020, https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3613.

N. A. Zainurin, S. a. B. Anas, and R. S. S. Singh, "A Review of Battery Charging - Discharging Management Controller: A Proposed Conceptual Battery Storage Charging – Discharging Centralized Controller," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 7515–7521, Aug. 2021, https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.4217.

M. Faisal, M. A. Hannan, P. J. Ker, and M. N. Uddin, "Backtracking Search Algorithm Based Fuzzy Charging-Discharging Controller for Battery Storage System in Microgrid Applications," IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 159357–159368, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2951132.

D. Liu, X. Yin, Y. Song, W. Liu, and Y. Peng, "An On-Line State of Health Estimation of Lithium-Ion Battery Using Unscented Particle Filter," IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 40990–41001, 2018, https://doi.org/


"1.1 billion people still lack electricity. This could be the solution," World Economic Forum. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/06/1-billion-people-lack-electricity-solution-mini-grid-iea/ (accessed Nov. 06, 2021).


How to Cite

R. Uwamahoro, N. Mduma, and D. Machuve, “A Battery Voltage Level Monitoring System for Telecommunication Towers”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 7875–7880, Dec. 2021.


Abstract Views: 690
PDF Downloads: 347

Metrics Information

Most read articles by the same author(s)