The Influence of Bath Temperature on the Properties of SILAR Deposited Cobalt Selenide Thin Films


  • S. M. Ho Center for American Education, INTI International University, Malaysia
  • T. J. S. Anand Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia
Volume: 11 | Issue: 4 | Pages: 7393-7398 | August 2021 |


In this paper, cobalt selenide thin films have been deposited onto glass slides with the SILAR method under various bath temperatures. The structure, optical properties, and morphology of thin films were investigated. The X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed that the number of peak intensities increased with increasing bath temperature. From the AFM images, bigger sizes and thicker films were observed for the films prepared at 80°C. The average grain size was estimated to be 0.2µm, 0.15µm, and 0.25µm when the bath temperature was 40°C, 50°C, and 80°C respectively. The highest absorbance value was observed for films prepared at 80°C. The band gap values range from 2eV to 2.4eV.


thin films, cobalt selenide, semiconductor, band gap, solar cells, SILAR technique


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

T. J. S. Anand, Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia

Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Technology

University Teknikal Malaysia Melaka

Durian Tunggal, Malacca, Malaysia


T. J. S. Anand, S. Sharir, and S. I. Abd. Razak, "Electrosynthesized transition metal chalcogenide thin films for photoelectrochemical cell applications," Current Topics in Electrochemistry, vol. 21, pp. 131-150, 2020.

H. M. M. N. Hennayaka and H. S. Lee, "Structural and optical properties of ZnS thin film grown by pulsed electrodeposition," Thin Solid Films, vol. 548, pp. 86-90, Dec. 2013.

T. J. S. Anand and S. Shariza, "A study on molybdenum sulphoselenide (MoSxSe2−x, 0≤x≤2) thin films: Growth from solution and its properties," Electrochimica Acta, vol. 81, pp. 64-73, Oct. 2012.

A. A. Yadav and E. U. Masumdar, "Photoelectrochemical investigations of cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin film electrodes prepared by spray pyrolysis," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 509, no. 17, pp. 5394-5399, Apr. 2011.

P. P. Hankare, B. V. Jadhav, P. A. Chate, D. J. Sathe, and I. S. Mulla, "Synthesis and characterization of chemically deposited nickel substituted CdSe thin film," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 509, no. 6, pp. 2948-2951, Feb. 2011.

P. A. Luque, M. A. Quevedo-Lopez, and A. Olivas, "Influence of deposition time on ZnS thin film growth over SiO2 and glass substrates," Materials Letters, vol. 106, pp. 49-51, Sep. 2013.

P. Jain and P. Arun, "Influence of grain size on the band-gap of annealed SnS thin films," Thin Solid Films, vol. 548, pp. 241-246, Dec. 2013.

H. Soonmin, "Chemical Bath Deposition of ZnSe Thin Films: Investigations of the Growth Conditions," American Chemical Science Journal, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 1-6, May 2016.

C. Xu, K. Liu, and M. Jing, "Research Status and Development of CuInTe2 Thin Film Solar Cells," Materials Science Forum, vol. 893, pp. 151-155, Mar. 2017.

H. Soonmin, S. Mandati, R. Chandran, A. Mallik, M. A. S. Bhuiyan, and K. G. Deepa, "Preparation of Cu in Se2 Thin Films by using Various Methods (A Short Review)," Oriental Journal of Chemistry, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 1-13, Feb. 2019.

M. Abbas, N. Shah, K. Jehangir, M. Fareed, and A. Zaidi, "Physical Properties of Znte Semiconductor Thin Films Prepared by High Vacuum Resistive System," Materials Science-Poland, vol. 36, no. 3, Sep. 2018.

H. Min, "Influence of deposition time on optical properties of chemically deposited nickel lead sulphide thin films," International Journal of Applied Chemistry, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 111-120, Jan. 2017.

K. Neyvasagam, N. Soundararajan, Ajaysoni, G. S. Okram, and V. Ganesan, "Low-temperature electrical resistivity of cupric telluride (CuTe) thin films," Physica Status Solidi (b), vol. 245, no. 1, pp. 77-81, 2008.

H. Min, A. Kassim, K. Zulkefly, S. atan, and T. weetee, "Effects of deposition potential on Cu4SnS4 thin films prepared by electrodeposition technique," The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, vol. 35, no. 1A, pp. 83-92, Jan. 2010.

A. V. Kokate et al., "Photoelectrochemical properties of electrochemically deposited CdIn2S4 thin films," Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol. 67, no. 11, pp. 2331-2336, Nov. 2006.

O. Volobujeva et al., "SEM analysis and selenization of Cu-In alloy films produced by co-sputtering of metals," Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 11-14, Jan. 2009.

T. Çayır Taşdemirci, "Influence of annealing on properties of SILAR deposited nickel oxide films," Vacuum, vol. 167, pp. 189-194, Sep. 2019.

Y. Akaltun, M. Aslan, T. Yetim, T. Çayır, and A. Çelik, "The effect of wettability on corrosion resistance of oxide films produced by SILAR method on magnesium, aluminum and copper substrates," Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 292, pp. 121-131, Apr. 2016.

A. Sundhar, "Development of ZnS thin film with Co, Cu and Ag doping using SILAR method," Materials Today: Proceedings, Oct. 2020.

A. Murugan, V. Siva, A. samad Shameem, and S. A. Bahadur, "Optimization of adsorption and reaction time of SILAR deposited Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films: Structural, optical and electrochemical performance," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 856, Mar. 2021, Art. no. 158055.

P. Kumar, G. K. Rao, and C. D. Ashik, "The Effect of the Precursor Molarities on the Composition, Microstructure and Optical Properties of Tin Sulphide Films Obtained from S-SILAR Technique," ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, vol. 9, no. 6, Jul. 2020, Art. no. 064004.

M. M. Nadareishvili, G. Mamniashvili, D. Jishiashvili, G. Abramishvili, C. Ramana, and J. Ramsden, "Investigation of the Visible Light-Sensitive ZnO Photocatalytic Thin Films," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 5524-5527, Apr. 2020.

T. B. Nasrallah, D. Mahboub, M. Jemai, and S. Belgacem, "Temperature Effect on Al/p-CuInS2/SnO2(F) Schottky Diodes," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 4695-4701, Oct. 2019.

S. M. Ho, "Fabrication of Cu4SnS4 Thin Films: Α Review," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 6161-6164, Oct. 2020.

S. D. Sartale and C. Lokhande, "Deposition of cobalt sulfide thin films by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method, and their characterization," Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics, vol. 38, no. 1, Jan. 2000, Art. no. 48.

T. Abza et al., "Characterization of Cobalt Sulfide Thin Films Synthesized from Acidic Chemical Baths," Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 2020, Apr. 2020, Art. no. e2628706.

S. T. Mane, S. S. Kamble, and L. P. Deshmukh, "Cobalt sulphide thin films: Chemical bath deposition, growth and properties," Materials Letters, vol. 65, no. 17, pp. 2639-2641, Sep. 2011.

G. Govindasamy, P. Murugasen, and S. Sagadevan, "Optical and Electrical Properties of Chemical Bath Deposited Cobalt Sulphide Thin Films," Materials Research, vol. 20, pp. 62-67, Nov. 2016.

S. B. Kale, A. C. Lokhande, R. B. Pujari, and C. D. Lokhande, "Cobalt sulfide thin films for electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction and supercapacitor applications," Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 532, pp. 491-499, Dec. 2018.

K. Ramasamy, M. A. Malik, J. Raftery, F. Tuna, and P. O'Brien, "Selective Deposition of Cobalt Sulfide Nanostructured Thin Films from Single-Source Precursors," Chemistry of Materials, vol. 22, no. 17, pp. 4919-4930, Sep. 2010.

H.-W. Jee, K.-J. Paeng, Y. Son, Y. Jang, K. Rho, and N. Myung, "Electrosynthesis of Cobalt Telluride Thin Films by Voltammetry Combined with Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microgravimetry," Journal of The Electrochemical Society, vol. 166, no. 5, Dec. 2018, Art. no. H3035.

B. R. Dahal, R. P. Dulal, I. L. Pegg, and J. Philip, "Electrical transport and magnetic properties of cobalt telluride nanostructures," Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, vol. 34, no. 5, Sep. 2016, Art. no. 051801.

G. Zhang, K. Liu, and J. Zhou, "Cobalt telluride/graphene composite nanosheets for excellent gravimetric and volumetric Na-ion storage," Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 6, no. 15, pp. 6335-6343, Apr. 2018.

O. Arellano-Tanori, E. Chavez-Mendiola, R. Gamez-Corrales, X. M. García-Cruz, K. Apodaca-Ibarra, and S. J. Castillo, "Obtaining nano structures of cobalt telluride by a simplified ion exchange reaction at aqueous solution," Chalcogenide Letters, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 57-61, Feb. 2019.

N. Ghobadi et al., "Microstructure and Optical Bandgap of Cobalt Selenide Nanofilms," Semiconductors, vol. 53, no. 13, pp. 1751-1758, Dec. 2019.

F. Liu, B. Wang, Y. Lai, J. Li, Z. Zhang, and Y. Liu, "Electrodeposition of Cobalt Selenide Thin Films," Journal of The Electrochemical Society, vol. 157, no. 10, Aug. 2010, Art. no. D523.

M. L. Gaur, P. P. Hankare, K. M. Garadkar, I. S. Mulla, and V. M. Bhuse, "Morphological and optoelectronic studies on poly-crystalline leaf-like cobalt selenide thin film synthesized using a chemical bath deposition technique," New Journal of Chemistry, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 255-259, Dec. 2013.

L. Zhu et al., "Structure of sputtered Co-Se thin films prepared for an application in catalysis," Journal of Solid State Chemistry, vol. 179, no. 12, pp. 3942-3948, Dec. 2006.

B. Wang, F.-Y. Liu, J. Li, Y.-Q. Lai, Z.-A. Zhang, and Y.-X. Liu, "Preparation and Characterization of Co-Se Thin Films by Electrodeposition: Preparation and Characterization of Co-Se Thin Films by Electrodeposition," Journal of Inorganic Materials, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 403-410, Apr. 2011.

M. Achimovičová, N. Daneu, E. Dutková, and A. Zorkovská, "Mechanochemically synthesized cobalt monoselenide: structural characterization and optical properties," Applied Physics A, vol. 123, no. 3, Feb. 2017, Art. no. 154.

S. S. Fareed et al., "Properties of SILAR deposited magnetite (Fe3O4) thin films: effect of bath temperatures," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 28, no. 13, pp. 9450-9455, Jul. 2017.

F. Baig, Y. H. Khattak, B. M. Soucase, S. Beg, and S. Ullah, "Effect of anionic bath temperature on morphology and photo electrochemical properties of Cu2O deposited by SILAR," Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, vol. 88, pp. 35-39, Dec. 2018.

R. Zein and I. Alghoraibi, "Influence of Bath Temperature and Deposition Time on Topographical and Optical Properties of Nanoparticles ZnS Thin Films Synthesized by a Chemical Bath Deposition Method," Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2019, Feb. 2019, Art. no. e7541863.

H. Min, W. Tan, and A. Kassim, "The role of bath temperature in aqueous acidic chemically PbS films," Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, vol. 3, no. 11, pp. 353-357, Jan. 2013.

M. L. Gaur, P. P. Hankare, I. S. Mulla, F. M. Dange, and V. M. Bhuse, "Morphological and optical properties of mixed cadmium cobalt selenide thin film synthesized by chemical bath deposition method for photoelectrochemical applications," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 7603-7608, Jul. 2016.

A. Panneerselvam et al., "Ligand influence on the formation of P/Se semiconductor materials from metal-organic complexes," Dalton Transactions, no. 33, pp. 4499-4506, Aug. 2008.

M. A. K. Pathan, K. A. M. H. Siddiquee, S. Alam, O. Islam, and M. A. Gafur, "Structural and optical characterization of CdS and CdHgTe thin films for the fabrication of CdHgTe/CdS structure," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 745-751, Feb. 2013.

M. K. Khalaf, B. A. M. ALhilli, A. I. Khudiar, and A. A. Alzahra, "Influence of nanocrystalline size on optical band gap in CdSe thin films prepared by DC sputtering," Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications, vol. 18, pp. 59-66, Jan. 2016.

Y. Azizian-Kalandaragh and A. Khodayari, "Ultrasound-assisted preparation of CdSe nanocrystals in the presence of Polyvinyl alcohol as a capping agent," Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 225-230, Dec. 2010.

N.-H. Kim, S.-H. Ryu, H.-S. Noh, and W.-S. Lee, "Electrical and optical properties of sputter-deposited cadmium sulfide thin films optimized by annealing temperature," Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 125-130, Apr. 2012.

T. Liang, Z. Zainal, W. Tan, and I. Hamadneh, "Potentiostatic deposition of copper indium disulfide thin films: Effect of cathodic potentials on the optical and photoelectrochemical properties," The Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 600-608, Jan. 2008.

S. H. Dhawankar, A. K. Patil, J. S. Lad, and B. M. Suryavanshi, "Optical study of ZnS Solid thin film prepared by spray pyrolysis technique," Archives of Physics Research, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 7-11, 2013.

G. M. Jigi, T. Abza, and A. Girma, "Synthesis and Characterization of aluminum dope zinc sulfide (Al:ZnS) thin films by chemical bath deposition techniques," Journal of Applied Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 55-58, 2021.

G. Pérez-Hernández et al., "A comparative study of CdS thin films deposited by different techniques," Thin Solid Films, vol. 535, pp. 154-157, May 2013.

A. Kassim, T. W. Tee, A. H. Abdullah, S. Nagalingam, and H. S. Min, "Deposition and characterization of Cu 4 SnS 4 thin films by chemical bath deposition method," Macedonian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 97-103, Jun. 2010.

A. Kassim, M. Y. Rosli, and H. Min, "UV-Visible studies of chemical bath deposited NiSe thin films.," International Journal of Chemical Research, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 21-26, Jul. 2011.

A. Kassim, S. Nagalingam, W. Tan, H. Min, and D. Teo, "Chemical Bath Deposition of Nickel Sulphide (Ni4S3) Thin Films," Leonardo Journal of Sciences, vol. 16, pp. 1-12, Jan. 2010.

H. Soonmin, "Power Conversion Efficiency in Thin Film Solar Cell: A Review," International Journal of Chemical Sciences, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 143-151, Mar. 2016.

T. Sinha, L. Verma, and A. Khare, "Variations in photovoltaic parameters of CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells by changing the substrate for the deposition of CdS window layer," Applied Physics A, vol. 126, no. 11, Oct. 2020, Art. no. 867.


How to Cite

S. M. Ho and T. J. S. Anand, “The Influence of Bath Temperature on the Properties of SILAR Deposited Cobalt Selenide Thin Films”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 7393–7398, Aug. 2021.


Abstract Views: 263
PDF Downloads: 174

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share

Most read articles by the same author(s)