Impact of the Effluents of Hyderabad City, Tando Muhammad Khan, and Matli on Phuleli Canal Water
The demand and supply of safe water is a basic need. The consumption of clean water intensified with population growth and economic development which in turn cause degradation of available freshwater resources while creating huge volumes of wastewater, solid waste, and serious environmental problems. This paper presents the impact of disposing of domestic/industrial effluents into an irrigation canal. The subsequent contamination of the canal water becomes a public health risk. The non-perennial Phuleli canal with a discharge of 15,026 cusecs, takes in water from the left bank of Kotri Barrage, which is the last controlling hydraulic structure on the Indus River. This canal runs from the periphery of Hyderabad, Tando Muhammad Khan (TM Khan) and Matli cities and supplies water for domestic, agricultural, and industrial activities. The canal water is the only source of drinking water for millions of people because the groundwater in the command area of the canal is highly saline. The banks on both sides of the canal have encroached in cities’ areas. The huge volume of solid waste and municipal and industrial wastewater from these cities and from the occupied canal banks are dumped directly into the canal without any treatment. The collected samples’ were analyzed for pH, EC, TDS, Cl, SO4, HCO3, hardness, Na, K, Ca, and Mg. These results show higher than permissible limits as per NEQS and WHO. The Karl Pearson matrix correlation of parameters reveals strong relation among EC with TDS and CL with SO4, Mg with K and moderated relationship among the other parameters except for pH and DO. Water Quality Index (WQI) model indicates that the water quality of the canal is poor and unfit for drinking. Hence the consumption of canal water is a high potential health risk for locals.
M. V. Japitana, M. E. C. Burce, C. Ye, “A geoinformatics-based framework for surface water quality mapping and monitoring”, Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 4120-4124, 2019
A. A. Mahessar, A. L. Qureshi, A. N. Leghari, S. Qureshi, S. F. Shah, F. A. Shaikh, “Impact of hairdin, Miro Khan and Shahdad Kot drainage on Hamal Dhand, Sindh”, Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 8, No. 6, pp. 3652-3656, 2018
A. A. Mahessar, A. L. Qureshi, K. C. Mukwana, A. Q. Jakhrani, “Study of environmental impacts and threats to the Ramsar Haleji lake, Sindh, Pakistan”, International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences, Vol. 10, No. 5, pp. 1577-1590, 2015
R. Ahmad, “Studies on the chemistry control of some selected drinking and industrial waters”, Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 174-179, 2009
WHO, UNESCO, United Nations Environment Programme, Water quality assessments: Use of biota, sediments and water in environmental monitoring, University Press, 1996
M. A. Tahir, B. A. Chandio, M. Abdullah, A. Rashid, “Drinking water quality monitoring in the rural areas of Rawalpindi”, National Workshop on Quality of Drinking Water, Islamabad, Pakistan, March 7, 1998
A. A. Mahessar, N. A. Memon, M. E. H. Leghari, A. L. Qureshi, G. M. Arain, “Assessment of source and quality of drinking water in coastal area of Badin, Sindh, Pakistan”, Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 9-15, 2015
P. J. Chilton, D. Jamieson, M. S. Abid, C. J. Milne, M. E. Ince, J. A. Aziz, Pakistan water quality mapping and management project. Scoping study, Draft final report, Water Engineering and Development Centre, Loughborough University and London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, UK, 2001
A. A. Mahessar, A. L. Qureshi, H. Ursani, I. Tunio, B. Kandhro, S. A. Memon, “Environmental concerns for water consumption from polluted water bodies in watershed area of Sindh province”, Journal of Pollution Effects & Control, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 2375-4397, 2017
A. A. Mahessar, A. L. Qureshi, K. C. Mukwana, A. N. Laghari, “Impact of urban and industrial effluent of hyderabad city on fresh water pinyari canal”, Quaid-E-Awam University Research Journal of Engineering, Science & Technology, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 57-63, 2015
A. A. Mahessar, A. L. Qureshi, N. A. Memon, S. Qureshi, I. A. Bohio, “Impact assessment of effluent from kotri industrial site area on environment”, Science International (Lahore), Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 3535-3540, 2016
A. M. C. P. K. Abeysinghe, Willingness to pay for wastewater disposal by commercial water users in Kandy municipality, Unpublished final year project report, University of Peradeniya, 2007
A. A. Mahessar, K. C. Mukwana, A. L. Qureshi, M. E. U. H. Leghari, A. L. Manganhar, “Assessment of water quality of LBOD system and environmental concerns”, Quaid-E-Awam University Research Journal of Engineering, Science & Technology, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 32-39, 2016
V. E. Lekwot, A. I. Caleb, A. K. Ndahi, “Effects of effluent discharge of Kaduna refinery on the water quality of river Romi”, Journal of Research in Environmental Science and Toxicology, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 41-46, 2012
T. S. D. Pranavam, T. V. Rao, L. Punithavathi, S. Karunanithi, A. Bhaskaran, “Groundwater pollution in the Palar Riverbed near Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India”, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 19-21, 2011
A. L. Qureshi, A. A. Mahessar, M. E. U. H. Leghari, B. K. Lashari, F. M. Mari, “Impact of releasing wastewater of sugar industries into drainage system of LBOD, Sindh, Pakistan”, International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol. 6, No. 5, pp. 381-386, 2015
M. Keiner, “Towards gigapolis? From urban growth to evolutionable medium-sized cities”, in: Managing urban futures: Sustainability and urban growth in developing countries, Routledge, 2006
P. Jayakody, L. R. Sally, S. A. K. Abeywardana, M. Najim, “Sustainable development of water resources, water supply and environment sanitation”, 32nd WEDC Conference, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 13-17, 2006
M. A. Ashraf, M. J. Maah, I. Yusoff, K. Mehmood, “Effects of polluted water irrigation on environment and health of people in Jamber, district Kasur, Pakistan”, International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 37-57, 2010
C. Vivien, A. I. Caleb, V. E. Lekwot, “Public health effects of effluent discharge of kaduna refinery into river romi”, Green Journal of Medical Science, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 64-69, 2012
S. Abera, A. Zeyinudin, B. Kebede, A. Deribew, S. Ali, E. Zemene, “Bacteriological analysis of drinking water source”, African Journal of Microbiology Research, Vol. 5, No. 18, pp. 2638-2641, 2011
H. Fereidoun, M. S. Nourddin, N. A. Rreza, A. Mohsen, R. Ahmad, H. Pouria, “The effect of long-term exposure to particulate pollution on the lung function of Teheranian and Zanjanian students”, Pakistan Journal of Physiology, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 1-5, 2007
H. Kan, “Environment and health in China: Challenges and opportunities”, Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 117, No. 12, pp. A530-A531, 2009
The Human Rights Council, “Human rights and access to safe drinking water and sanitation”, available at: https://www.right-docs.org/doc/a-hrc-res-15-9, 2010
A. A. Mahessar, K. Ansari, G. M. Arain, S. M. Kori, S. Qureshi, A. L. Qureshi, “Impact of right bank outfall drain-I (RBOD-I)/Main nara valley drain (MNVD) on Manchar Lake, Sindh, Pakistan”, Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 9, No. 6, pp. 5074-5079, 2019
N. B. Bhatti, A. A. Siyal, A. L. Qureshi, “Groundwater quality assessment using water quality index: A case study of Nagarparkar, Sindh, Pakistan”, Sindh University Research Journal (Science Series), Vol. 50, No. 2, pp 227-234, 2018
S. Xia, J. Nan, R. Li, G. Li, “Study of drinking water treatment by ultrafiltration of surface water and its application to China”, Desalination, Vol. 170, No. 1, pp 41-47, 2004
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.