Evaluation of Allocated Areas for Parks and their Attributes: Hail City

  • M. A. Said Architectural Engineering Department, University of Hail, Saudi Arabia
  • M. Touahmia Architectural Engineering Department, University of Hail, Hail, Saudi Arabiα
Keywords: park evaluation, park attributes, assessment tool


Accessibility to parks and open spaces plays an important role in the urban quality of life. Public parks play a vital role that affects all members of society regardless of their social ranking. Accessibility (visitation) to parks and recreational areas has increased significantly all over the world. This scenario to some extent is the same in Hail city, where the area allocated for parks and open spaces is very small. Parks in Hail are still suffering from many planning and design aspects that discourage people from frequent visitations. This study, therefore, aims to address this phenomenon by examining the area allocated for parks and park attributes. The study’s data are collected from the relevant literature regarding parks and their attributes. An assessment tool is designed and utilized to evaluate parks in Hail. Google maps software was used to measure the areas of neighborhoods and parks in addition to park distribution. This study shows that the areas allocated for parks are far below WHO requirements, and park attributes do not fully meet all visitors’ requirements.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

M. A. Said, Architectural Engineering Department, University of Hail, Saudi Arabia

Architectural Engineering Department, University of Hail, Hail, Saudi Arabia

M. Touahmia, Architectural Engineering Department, University of Hail, Hail, Saudi Arabiα

Architectural Engineering Department, University of Hail, Hail, Saudi Arabia


H. Woolley, “Freedom of the city: Contemporary issues and policy influences on children and young people's use of public open space in England”, Children's Geographies, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 45-59, 2006

H. Shaftoe, Convivial urban spaces: Creating effective public places, Routledge, 2008

J. Byrne, N. Sipe, Green and open space planning for urban consolidation: a review of the literature and best practice, Urban Research Program, 2010

G. C. Godbey, L. L. Caldwell, M. Floyd, L. L. Payne, “Contributions of leisure studies and recreation and park management research to the active living agenda”, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 150-158, 2005

L. R. D. L. Vega, W. N. Toscano, Handbook of leisure, physical activity, sports, recreation and quality of life, Springer, 2018

A. J. Veal, Leisure and benefits: U-plan project paper 6, School of Leisure, 2009

A. J. Veal, Leisure, sport and tourism, politics, policy and planning, CABI, 2010

A. R. Kearney, “Residential development patterns and neighborhood satisfaction: Impacts of density and nearby nature”, Environment and Behavior, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 112-139, 2006

J. Kim, R. Kaplan, “Physical and psychological factors in sense of community: New urbanist Kentlands and nearby Orchard village”, Environment and Behavior, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 313-340, 2004

D. Sinnett, N. Smith, S. Burgess, Handbook on green infrastructure: Planning, design and implementation, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015

R. Kaplan, “The role of nature in the context of the workplace”, Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 26, No. 1-4, pp. 193-201, 1993

E. L. Wight, W. W. Chen, V. Dodd, R. Weiler, “Healthy workplaces: The effects of nature contact at work on employee stress and health”, Public Health Reports, Vol. 126, No. 1, pp. 124-130, 2011

E. O. Smith, A. J. Mowen, L. L. Payne, G. Godbey, “The interaction of stress and park use on psycho-physiological health in older adults”, Journal of Leisure Research, Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 232-256, 2004

A. Forsyth, E. Salomon, L. Smead, Creating healthy neighborhoods: Evidence-based planning and design strategies, Routledge, 2017

T. Sugiyama, C. W. Thompson, S. Alves, “Associations between neighborhood open space attributes and quality of life for older people in Britain”, Environment and Behavior, Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 3-21, 2009

H. Barton, S. Thompson, S. Burgess, M. Grant, The routledge handbook of planning for health and well-being: Shaping a sustainable and healthy future, Routledge, 2015

A. Jawed, M. A. H. Talpur, I. Chandio, P. Noor, “Impacts of in-accessible and poor public transportation system on urban environment: Evidence from hyderabad, Pakistan”, Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 3896-3899, 2019

B. Cimprich, D. L. Ronis, “An environmental intervention to restore attention in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer”, Cancer Nursing, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 284-292, 2003

B. Cimprich, H. So, D. L. Ronis, C. Trask, “Pre-treatment factors related to cognitive functioning in women newly diagnosed with breast cancer”, Journal of the Psychological, Social and Behavioral Dimensions of Cancer, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 70-78, 2005

R. V. Newalkar, Architecture of care in the urban public space: A philosophical inquiry in ‘Ethics of care’to inform the nature of the urban public space, MSc Thesis, Iowa State University, 2017

J. H. Heerwagen, G. H. Orians, “The ecological world of children”, in: Children and nature: Psychological, sociocultural, and evolutionary investigations, pp. 29-62, Press, 2002

P. H. Kahn, S. R. Kellert, Children and nature: Psychological, sociocultural, and evolutionary investigations, MIT Press, 2002

M. A. Kirkby, “Nature as refuge in children's environments”, Children's Environments Quarterly, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 7-12, 1989

P. J. Landrigan, R. A. Etzel, Textbook of children's environmental health, Oxford University Press, 2013

S. R. Kellert, E. O. Wilson, The biophilia hypothesis, Island Press, 1995

Y. Joye, A. D. Block, “'Nature and i are two': A critical examination of the biophilia hypothesis”, Environmental Values, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 189-215, 2011

K. Day, “The ethic of care and women's experiences of public space”, Journal of Environmental Psychology, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 103-124, 2000

G. Doherty, C. Waldheim, Is landscape...?: Essays on the identity of landscape, Routledge, 2015

M. Ozsoy, “User preferences on transformations of shopping centers into private urban public spaces: The case of Izmir, Turkey”, African Journal of Business Management, Vol. 4, No. 10, pp. 1990-2005, 2010

E. M. Gutierrez, “Urban growth, policy and planning of public space”, International Review of Sociology, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 89-102, 2011

A. Madanipour, S. Knierbein, A. Degros, “Public space and the challenges of urban transformation in Europe”, Routledge, 2013

J. Schipperijn, O. Ekholm, U. K. Stigsdotter, M. Toftager, P. Bentsen, F. K. Jorgensen, T. B. Randrup, “Factors influencing the use of green space: Results from a Danish national representative survey”, Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 95, No. 3, pp. 130-137, 2010

S. Paul, H. Nagendra, “Factors influencing perceptions and use of urban nature: Surveys of park visitors in Delhi”, Land, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 1-27, 2017

M. Neuvonen, T. Sievanen, S. Tonnes, T. Koskela, “Access to green areas and the frequency of visits: A case study in Helsinki”, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 235-247, 2007

N. Radwan, S. A. Mangi, “Municipal solid waste management practices and opportunities in Saudi Arabia”, Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 4516-4519, 2019

How to Cite
M. A. Said and M. Touahmia, “Evaluation of Allocated Areas for Parks and their Attributes: Hail City”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. pp. 5117-5125, Feb. 2020.
Bookmark and Share