Evaluation of Allocated Areas for Parks and their Attributes: Hail City

Authors

  • M. A. Said Architectural Engineering Department, University of Hail, Saudi Arabia
  • M. Touahmia College of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Hail, Hail, Saudi Arabia
Volume: 10 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 5117-5125 | February 2020 | https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3253

Abstract

Accessibility to parks and open spaces plays an important role in the urban quality of life. Public parks play a vital role that affects all members of society regardless of their social ranking. Accessibility (visitation) to parks and recreational areas has increased significantly all over the world. This scenario to some extent is the same in Hail city, where the area allocated for parks and open spaces is very small. Parks in Hail are still suffering from many planning and design aspects that discourage people from frequent visitations. This study, therefore, aims to address this phenomenon by examining the area allocated for parks and park attributes. The study’s data are collected from the relevant literature regarding parks and their attributes. An assessment tool is designed and utilized to evaluate parks in Hail. Google maps software was used to measure the areas of neighborhoods and parks in addition to park distribution. This study shows that the areas allocated for parks are far below WHO requirements, and park attributes do not fully meet all visitors’ requirements.

Keywords:

park evaluation, park attributes, assessment tool

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

H. Woolley, “Freedom of the city: Contemporary issues and policy influences on children and young people's use of public open space in England”, Children's Geographies, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 45-59, 2006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14733280600577368

H. Shaftoe, Convivial urban spaces: Creating effective public places, Routledge, 2008

J. Byrne, N. Sipe, Green and open space planning for urban consolidation: a review of the literature and best practice, Urban Research Program, 2010

G. C. Godbey, L. L. Caldwell, M. Floyd, L. L. Payne, “Contributions of leisure studies and recreation and park management research to the active living agenda”, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 150-158, 2005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2004.10.027

L. R. D. L. Vega, W. N. Toscano, Handbook of leisure, physical activity, sports, recreation and quality of life, Springer, 2018

A. J. Veal, Leisure and benefits: U-plan project paper 6, School of Leisure, 2009

A. J. Veal, Leisure, sport and tourism, politics, policy and planning, CABI, 2010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1079/9781845935238.0000

A. R. Kearney, “Residential development patterns and neighborhood satisfaction: Impacts of density and nearby nature”, Environment and Behavior, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 112-139, 2006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916505277607

J. Kim, R. Kaplan, “Physical and psychological factors in sense of community: New urbanist Kentlands and nearby Orchard village”, Environment and Behavior, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 313-340, 2004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916503260236

D. Sinnett, N. Smith, S. Burgess, Handbook on green infrastructure: Planning, design and implementation, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4337/9781783474004

R. Kaplan, “The role of nature in the context of the workplace”, Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 26, No. 1-4, pp. 193-201, 1993 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-2046(93)90016-7

E. L. Wight, W. W. Chen, V. Dodd, R. Weiler, “Healthy workplaces: The effects of nature contact at work on employee stress and health”, Public Health Reports, Vol. 126, No. 1, pp. 124-130, 2011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/00333549111260S116

E. O. Smith, A. J. Mowen, L. L. Payne, G. Godbey, “The interaction of stress and park use on psycho-physiological health in older adults”, Journal of Leisure Research, Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 232-256, 2004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00222216.2004.11950021

A. Forsyth, E. Salomon, L. Smead, Creating healthy neighborhoods: Evidence-based planning and design strategies, Routledge, 2017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351179294

T. Sugiyama, C. W. Thompson, S. Alves, “Associations between neighborhood open space attributes and quality of life for older people in Britain”, Environment and Behavior, Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 3-21, 2009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916507311688

H. Barton, S. Thompson, S. Burgess, M. Grant, The routledge handbook of planning for health and well-being: Shaping a sustainable and healthy future, Routledge, 2015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315728261

A. Jawed, M. A. H. Talpur, I. Chandio, P. Noor, “Impacts of in-accessible and poor public transportation system on urban environment: Evidence from hyderabad, Pakistan”, Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 3896-3899, 2019 DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2482

B. Cimprich, D. L. Ronis, “An environmental intervention to restore attention in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer”, Cancer Nursing, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 284-292, 2003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00002820-200308000-00005

B. Cimprich, H. So, D. L. Ronis, C. Trask, “Pre-treatment factors related to cognitive functioning in women newly diagnosed with breast cancer”, Journal of the Psychological, Social and Behavioral Dimensions of Cancer, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 70-78, 2005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.821

R. V. Newalkar, Architecture of care in the urban public space: A philosophical inquiry in ‘Ethics of care’to inform the nature of the urban public space, MSc Thesis, Iowa State University, 2017

J. H. Heerwagen, G. H. Orians, “The ecological world of children”, in: Children and nature: Psychological, sociocultural, and evolutionary investigations, pp. 29-62, Press, 2002

P. H. Kahn, S. R. Kellert, Children and nature: Psychological, sociocultural, and evolutionary investigations, MIT Press, 2002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/1807.001.0001

M. A. Kirkby, “Nature as refuge in children's environments”, Children's Environments Quarterly, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 7-12, 1989

P. J. Landrigan, R. A. Etzel, Textbook of children's environmental health, Oxford University Press, 2013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199929573.001.0001

S. R. Kellert, E. O. Wilson, The biophilia hypothesis, Island Press, 1995

Y. Joye, A. D. Block, “'Nature and i are two': A critical examination of the biophilia hypothesis”, Environmental Values, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 189-215, 2011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3197/096327111X12997574391724

K. Day, “The ethic of care and women's experiences of public space”, Journal of Environmental Psychology, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 103-124, 2000 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/jevp.1999.0152

G. Doherty, C. Waldheim, Is landscape...?: Essays on the identity of landscape, Routledge, 2015

M. Ozsoy, “User preferences on transformations of shopping centers into private urban public spaces: The case of Izmir, Turkey”, African Journal of Business Management, Vol. 4, No. 10, pp. 1990-2005, 2010

E. M. Gutierrez, “Urban growth, policy and planning of public space”, International Review of Sociology, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 89-102, 2011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03906701.2011.544184

A. Madanipour, S. Knierbein, A. Degros, “Public space and the challenges of urban transformation in Europe”, Routledge, 2013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315880495

J. Schipperijn, O. Ekholm, U. K. Stigsdotter, M. Toftager, P. Bentsen, F. K. Jorgensen, T. B. Randrup, “Factors influencing the use of green space: Results from a Danish national representative survey”, Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 95, No. 3, pp. 130-137, 2010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2009.12.010

S. Paul, H. Nagendra, “Factors influencing perceptions and use of urban nature: Surveys of park visitors in Delhi”, Land, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 1-27, 2017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/land6020027

M. Neuvonen, T. Sievanen, S. Tonnes, T. Koskela, “Access to green areas and the frequency of visits: A case study in Helsinki”, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 235-247, 2007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2007.05.003

N. Radwan, S. A. Mangi, “Municipal solid waste management practices and opportunities in Saudi Arabia”, Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 4516-4519, 2019 DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2870

Downloads

How to Cite

[1]
M. A. Said and M. Touahmia, “Evaluation of Allocated Areas for Parks and their Attributes: Hail City”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 5117–5125, Feb. 2020.

Metrics

Abstract Views: 370
PDF Downloads: 252

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share

Most read articles by the same author(s)