Land-Use Change and Its Impact on Urban Flooding: A Case Study on Colombo District Flood on May 2016
Colombo district has become an increasingly congested urban society. It has been reported that the frequent flooding in the Colombo district occurs due to the shrinking of open spaces, illegal constructions, and lack of suitable waste disposal facilities. Therefore, this study focuses on analyzing the impact of land-use change on the flood of Colombo district in May 2016 in comparison to the land-use during the flood in 1989. Accordingly, Landsat images were utilized to identify the land-use by using NDVI, NDBI, and NDWI indices. Out of the several techniques examined, SVM classification was chosen, and change detection techniques in conjunction with remote sensing and GIS environment were adopted. SVM classification showed the highest accuracy for land-use classification, which was 99.0% in 1989 and 99.9% in 2016. The comparison of land-use changes of 1989 and 2016 with similar flood extent of the Colombo district proved that the area of the Kelani river watershed changed into urban area, having a significant impact on flood inundation. The Kelani river watershed includes 23% of the total urban area of the Colombo district. Similarly, the entire area of land-use transformation covered 37.7% of the area within the watershed region of the Colombo district. Eventually, this research identified the significant impact of Colombo district floods in May 2016 on land-use changes.
Keywords:NDVI, NDBI, NDWI, Landsat satellite images, land-use classification, urban floods
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