The Effect of Multipath on Single Frequency C/A Code Based GPS Positioning

Authors

  • T. L. Dammalage Department of Remote Sensing and GIS, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka
Volume: 8 | Issue: 4 | Pages: 3270-3275 | August 2018 | https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2206

Abstract

The differential GPS (DGPS) technique is one of the most popular and comparatively accurate techniques available to enhance the positioning accuracy by minimizing most of the common errors. However, the ultimate accuracy of the user location depends on the remaining non-common errors (multipath, receiver clock, and noise), which occur at the points of observation and reference. Out of these errors, multipath is the most dominant and challenging error to predict and minimize. Single frequency C/A code based GPS receivers are popular due to their comparatively low cost compared to dual frequency (L1/L2) GPS receivers. This paper focuses on evaluating the effect of multipath error on single frequency C/A code based GPS positioning. For the analysis, 72,000 continuous GPS observations with one-second interval under four different multipath environments were conducted by utilizing three geodetic GPS units. Accordingly, the observations with more than 5cm on the 2D positional error, created by the effected multipath, were always less than 25%. Here, an average of 16% of observations exceeded 20cm in 2D positional error. Further, it was noted that the presence of multipath introduces significantly higher and comparatively lower 3D positional errors on DGPS observations. This could be due to the compensation of negative and positive effects caused by the multipath and other remaining non-common mode errors at the reference and user stations. In addition, C/A code based single frequency GPS observations were significantly influenced by multipath, not only by the close-by reflectors but also by the ground surface. The effect of multipath was about 50% of the total 3D positional error for the four tested multipath environments.

Keywords:

C/A code observations, DGPS, multipath

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

I. A. Getting, “The Global Positioning System”, IEEE Spectrum, Vol. 30, No. 12, pp. 36–47, 1993 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/6.272176

P. Misra, P. Enge, Global positioning system signals, measurements, and performance, Ganga-Jamuna Press, 2011

B. W. Parkinson, “GPS Eyewitness: The Early Years”, GPS World, Vol. 5, No. 9, pp. 32-45, 1994

B. Hofmann-Wellenhof, H. Lichtenegger, J. Collins, GPS Theory and Practice, Springer Science & Business Media, 2012

V. S. Jan, GPS for Land Surveyors (2nd ed.), Ann Arbour Press, 2001

B. W. Parkinson, J. J. Spilker, Global Positioning System: Theory and Applications, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, USA, 1996

G. Xu, Y. Xu, GPS Theory, Algorithms, and Applications, Springer-Verlag, 2003

T. L. Dammalage, C. Satirapod, S. Kibe, C. Ogaja, “C/A Code multipath mitigation at GPS reference stations for improved differential GPS corrections”, Survey Review, Vol. 42, No. 317, pp. 240-255, 2010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1179/003962610X12572516251925

E. M. Hill, J. L. Davis, P. Elosegui, B. P. Wernicke, E. Malikowski, N. A. Niemi, “Characterization of site‐specific GPS errors using a short‐baseline network of braced monuments at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada”, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 114, No. B11, 2009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JB006027

E. L. Afraimovich, V. V. Chernukhov, V. V. Demyan, “Updating the ionospheric delay model using GPS data”, Application of the Conversion Research Results for International Cooperation. SIBCONVERS'99. Third International Symposium, Tomsk, Russia, pp. 455-457, May 18-20, 1999

R. Giffard, “Estimation of GPS ionospheric delay using code and carrier phase observables”, 31st Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting, Dana Point, USA, December 7-9, 1999

J. A. Klobuchar, “Ionospheric Effects on GPS”, GPS World, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 48-51, 1991

P. Collins, R. Langley, J. LaMance, “Limiting Factors in Tropospheric Propagation Delay Error Modelling for GPS Airborne Navigation”, Institute of Navigation 52nd Annual Meeting, Cambridge, USA, June 19–21, 1996

RTCM-SC104, RTCM recommended Standards for Differential GNSS (Version 2.3), Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services, 2001

A. Leick, GPS Satellite Surveying, John Wiley & Sons, 2004

L. Baroni, K. H. Kuga, “Analysis of navigational algorithms for a real time differential GPS system”, 18th International Congress of Mechanical Engineering, Ouro Preto, Brazil, November 6-11, 2005

C. He, J. Guo, X. Lu, J. Lu, “Multipath performance analysis of GNSS navigation signals”, Electronics Computer and Applications IEEE Workshop, Ottawa, Canada, pp. 379-382, 2014

T. Kos, I. Markezic, J. Pokrajcic, “Effects of Multipath Reception on GPS Positioning performance”, ELMAR-2010, 2010, Zadar, Croatia, September 15-17, 2010

P. Karimi, F. Farzaneh, “Reduction of multi-path effect based on correlation decomposition in a DOA estimation system”, Signal Processing and Intelligent Systems Conference, Tehran, Iran, pp. 10-14, IEEE, 2015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/SPIS.2015.7422303

S. Han, C. Rizos, “Multipath effects on GPS in mine environments”, International Congress of the International Society for Mine Surveying, Fremantle, Australia, pp. 447-457, November 2-6, 1997

L. Ge, S. Han, C. Rizos, “GPS Multipath Change Detection in Permanent GPS Stations”, Survey Review, Vol. 36, No. 283, pp. 306-322, 2002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1179/sre.2002.36.283.306

R. D. Van Nee, J. Siereveld, P. C. Fenton, B. R. Townsend, “The multipath estimating delay lock loop: approaching theoretical accuracy limits”, IEEE Position Location and Navigation Symposium, Las Vegas, USA, pp. 246-251, August 6, 1994

K. K. Fan, X. L. Ding, “Estimation of GPS Carrier Phase Multipath Signals Based on Site Environment”, Journal of Global Positioning Systems, Vol. 5, No. 1-2, pp. 22-28, 2006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5081/jgps.5.1.22

A. Mertins, Signal Analysis: Wavelets, Filter Banks, Time-Frequency Transforms and Applications. John Wiley, 1999

T. L. Dammalage, P. Srinuandee, L. Samarakoon, J. Susaki, T. Srisahakit, “Potential Accuracy and Practical Benefits of NTRIP Protocol Over Conventional RTK and DGPS Observation Methods”, Map Asia, Bangkok, Thailand, August 29 – September 1, 2006

Downloads

How to Cite

[1]
T. L. Dammalage, “The Effect of Multipath on Single Frequency C/A Code Based GPS Positioning”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 3270–3275, Aug. 2018.

Metrics

Abstract Views: 585
PDF Downloads: 250

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share

Most read articles by the same author(s)