Potential Recovery of Silver (Ag) from X-ray Fixer Waste by Alkaline Treatment
The study aims to establish a chemical method of silver recovery from x-ray processing fixer waste by alkaline treatment using sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The samples used in the study were collected from selected hospitals and radiology centers in Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines. The NaOH precipitation method was employed by varying the amount of NaOH from 8.00 g to 15.00 g per 600 mL of the fixer waste sample. The recovered crude silver for the two sampling periods ranged from 0.88 g to 2.46 g. The method resulted to optimum recovery at pH 9. The One Way ANOVA indicates that there are significant differences on the amount of silver recovered when varying the amount of NaOH in “sampling A”. The Tukey Test further reveals that there exists an evident rise in the recovered silver using 10.00 g to 15.00 g of NaOH. In “sampling B” the amount of silver recovered does not significantly differ when varying the amount of NaOH used on average basis. The raw data, however, also revealed a significant rise in the amount of silver recovered using 10.00 g to 15.00 g of NaOH where pH was approximately 9.
Keywords:X- ray, fixer waste, NaOH, recovery, silver (Ag)
S. Shankar, S. V. More, R. S. Laxman, “Recovery of silver from waste X-ray film by alkaline protease from Conidiobolus coronatus” , Kathmandu University Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 60-69, 2011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3126/kuset.v6i1.3311
H. Zhouxiang, W. Jianying, Z. Ma, H. Jifan, “A method to recover silver from waste X-ray films with spent fixing bath”, Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 92, No. 3, pp. 148-151, 2008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hydromet.2008.02.006
V. I. E. Ajiwe, I. E. Anyadiegwu, “Recovery of silver from industrial wastes, cassava solution effects”, Separation and Purification Technology, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 89-92, 2000 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1383-5866(99)00048-9
N. Nakiboglu, D. Toscali, I. Yasa, “Silver recovery from waste photographic films by using enzymatic method”, Turkish Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 349-353, 2001
N. Nakiboglu, D. Toscali, G. A. Nisli, “A novel silver recovery method from waste photographic films with NaOH stripping”, Turkish Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 127-133, 2003
A. D. Bas, E. Y. Yazici, H. Deveci, “Recovery of silver from X-ray film processing effluents by hydrogen peroxide treatment”, Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 121, pp. 22-27, 2012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hydromet.2012.04.011
V. Choudhary, “Recovery of silver from used X-ray films by Aspergillus versicolor protease”, Journal of Academia and Industrial Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 39-41, 2003
J. Marinkovic, M. Korac, Z. Kamberovic, I. Matic, “Recycling of silver from exposed X-ray films”, Acta Metallurgica Slovaca, Vol. 12, pp. 262-268, 2006
P. A. Ramirez, V. E. Reyes, M. A. Veloz, “Silver recovery from radiographic films using an electrochemical reactor”, International Journal of Electrochemical Science, Vol. 6, pp. 6151-6164, 2011
J. P. Chen, L. L. Lim, “Recovery of precious metals by an electrochemical deposition method”, Chemosphere, Vol. 60, No. 10, pp. 1384-1392, 2005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.02.001
J. Bentley, U.S. Patent No. 3,715,291. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. 1973
R. Scheidegger, A. Zurrer, U.S. Patent No. 4,139,431. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, 1979
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 1089
PDF Downloads: 590
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.