Assessing the Effects of Length, Slope and Distance between Piles on the Bearing Capacity of a Pile Group under Axial Loading in Granular Soil


  • A. Firoozfar Civil Engineering Department, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
  • A. Rostami Civil Engineering Department, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Iran
  • H. Ghaderi Civil Engineering Department, Islamic Azad University, Maragheh Branch, Maragheh, Iran
  • H. Zamani Civil Engineering Department, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
  • A. Rostamkhani Civil Engineering Department, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan Branch, Zanjan, Iran
Volume: 7 | Issue: 5 | Pages: 1894-1899 | October 2017 |


Piles are usually made of steel, concrete, reinforced concrete or wood, used to enhance the ground’s bearing capacity in order to enable the construction of deep foundations, also called pile foundations. However, the exact effect of the complex interaction between the piles and the surrounding soil has not adequately been investigated yet. Considering the increased application of the technique recently, further analysis is essential for achieving the highest economic and technical capacity. Using fewer piles or shorter piles and allowing greater distances between pile groups, results to reduced construction. However, other restrictions such as high groundwater level, bedrock depth and the limited size of the foundation are also to be considered. The issue of optimal pile layout is further investigated in the current paper employing Plaxis, a finite element software, for modeling purposes and considering axial loadings in granular soils. Results are shown and further discussed.


pile, group, inclined, bearing capacity, Plaxis, model


Download data is not yet available.


R. Noorzad, G. R. Saghaee, “Seismic Analysis of Inclined Micropiles Using Numerical Method”, International Foundation Congress and Equipment Expo, Orlando, Florida, United States, March 15-19, 2009 DOI:

I. Juran, A. Benslimane, S. Hanna, “Engineering analysis of dynamic behavior of micropile systems”, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Vol. 1772, pp. 91-106, 2001 DOI:

B. B. Jafar, R. Ahmad, “Optimize the Configuration of Piles Group with Genetic Algorithm Under Asymmetric Loading”, 6th National Conferences of Civil Engineering, Semnan, Iran, 25 April 2011

M. J. Tomlinson, J. Woodward, Pile Design and Construction Practice, 6th edition, CRC Press, 2014 DOI:

J. B. Kim, R. J. Brungraber, “Full-scale lateral load tests of pile groups”, ASCE Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Divission, Vol. 102, No. GTI, pp. 87-105, 1976

H. Niandou, D. Breysse, “Reliability Analysis of a Piled Raft Accounting for Soil Horizontal Variability”, Computers and Geotechnics, Vol. 34, pp. 71–80, 2007 DOI:

N. Gerolymos, A. Giannakou, I. Anastasopoulos, G. Gazetas, “Evidence of beneficial role of inclined piles: observations and Summary of numerical Analyses”, Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 705-722, 2008 DOI:

E. M. Comodromos, C. T. Anagnostopoulos, M. K. Georgiadis, “Numerical assessment of axial pile group response based on load test”, Journal of Computers and Geotechnics, Vol. 30, pp. 505-515, 2003 DOI:

S. Rajashree, T. Sitharam, “Nonlinear Finite-Element Modeling of Batter Piles under Lateral Load”, ASCE J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., Vol. 127, No. 7(604), pp. 604-612, 2001 DOI:

H. Poulos, E. Davis, Pile foundation analysis and design, John Wiley and Sons, 1980

G. Ranjan, G. Ramasamy, R. P. Tyagi, “Lateral response of batter piles and pile bents in clay,” Indian Geotech. J., No. 10, No. 2, pp. 135-142, 1980

A. Hanna, A. Afram, “Pullout capacity of single batter piles in sand”, Can. Geotech. J., Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 387–392, 1986 DOI:

A. Hanna, T. Nguyen, “Shaft resistance of single vertical and batter piles driven in sand.” ASCE Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, No. 129, pp. 601-607, 2003 DOI:


How to Cite

A. Firoozfar, A. Rostami, H. Ghaderi, H. Zamani, and A. Rostamkhani, “Assessing the Effects of Length, Slope and Distance between Piles on the Bearing Capacity of a Pile Group under Axial Loading in Granular Soil”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 1894–1899, Oct. 2017.


Abstract Views: 623
PDF Downloads: 267

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share