SCTP-aware Link Layer Retransmission Mechanism for Smart-grid Communication Network
The smart grid delivers electricity from suppliers to consumers and uses bidirectional communication to exchange real-time information between supply system and smart meters at the user end. With a combined communication infrastructure, smart grid manages the operation of all associated components to provide reliable and supportable electricity supply. The Neighborhood Area Network (NAN) of smart grid supports bi-directional data transfer between smart meters (installed at customer premises) and control center of the utility company through an aggregator. This communication suffers low throughput and excessive delays due to the Head of Line (HOL) blocking when the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is implemented for reliability. In this paper we propose SCTP-aware Link Layer Retransmission mechanism (SCTP-LLR) which augments the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) with Link Layer Retransmissions at the aggregator. SCTP-LLR uses the multi-streaming feature offered by SCTP and implements link layer retransmissions at the aggregator to mitigate the effect of HOL blocking. We carried out simulations using Network Simulator and compared the performance of SCTP-LLR against TCP and SCTP. Our results show that SCTP-LLR outperforms both TCP and SCTP in terms of throughput and packet delays and is a promising protocol to be implemented in smart grid NAN for reliable and efficient communication.
Keywords:Head of line blocking, Link layer retransmission, Neighborhood area network, Smart grid network, Stream Control Transmission Protocol
Network Working Group (R. Stewart ed), RFC 4960 Stream Control Transmission Protocol, 2007, available at: https://tools.ietf.org/pdf/rfc4960.pdf
H. Balakrishnan, S. Seshan, R. H. Katz, “Improving reliable transport and handoff performance in cellular wireless networks”, ACM Wireless Networks, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 469 – 481, 1995 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01985757
H. Balakrishnan, V. Padmanabhan, S. Seshan, R. H. Katz, “A Comparison of mechanisms for Improving TCP performance over wireless links”, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Vol. 5, No. 6, pp. 756 – 769, 1997 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/90.650137
M. Happenhofer, P. Reichl, “Measurement-based analysis of head-of-line blocking for sip over TCP”, IEEE International Symposium on Modeling, Analysis & Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems (MASCOTS 2010), pp. 244 – 253, 2010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MASCOTS.2010.33
S. T. Kim, S. J. Koh, Y. J. Kim, “Performance of SCTP for IPTV Applications”, 9th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology, pp. 2176 – 2180, 2007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICACT.2007.358804
S. Zeadally, H. Moustafa, F. Siddiqui, “Internet Protocol Television (IPTV): Architecture, Trends, and Challenges”, Systems Journal, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 518 -527, 2011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/JSYST.2011.2165601
R. Stewart, P. D. Amer, “Why is SCTP needed given TCP and UDP are widely available?”, Internet Society, Member Briefing 17, September 10, 2007 available at: https://www.isoc.org/briefings/017/
P. Natarajan, F. Baker, P. D. Amer, J. T. Leighton, “SCTP : Why, What, and How”, Internet Computing, Vol. 13, No. 15, pp. 81 – 85, 2009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MIC.2009.114
B. Olyaei, J. Pirskanen, O. Raeesi, A. Hazmi, M. Valkama, “Performance comparison between slotted IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.1 lah in IoT based applications”, 9th IEEE International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob 2013), Lyon, pp. 332-337, October, 2013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/WiMOB.2013.6673381
J. G. Cupp, M. E. Beehler, “Implementing Smart Grid Communications”, TECH Briefs, Vol. 4, 2008
B. Gohn, “Smart Grid Communications Architecture”, Navigant Research, 2011
Z. Fan, P. Kulkarni, S. Gormus, C. Efthymiou, G. Kalogriddis, M. Sooriyabandara, Z. Zhu, S. Lambotharan, W. Chin, “Smart Grid Communications: overview of Research Challenges, Solutions, and Standardization Activities”, Communications Surveys & Tutorials, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 21-38, 2012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/SURV.2011.122211.00021
GridCom™, A secure distribution area network architecture. Tropos GridCom, 2012
S. Aust, R.V. Prasad, I. G. M. M. Niemegeers, “IEEE 802.11ah: Advantages in standards and further challenges for sub 1 GHz Wi-Fi”, 2012 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Ottawa, pp. 6885 – 6889, June 10-15, 2012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICC.2012.6364903
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 456
PDF Downloads: 173
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.