Efficiency and Durability Assessment of Soil Stabilization using Waste Tire Shreds


  • Idrees Majeed Kareem Artoshi Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Zakho, Iraq
  • Lana Ayad Abdulateef Civil Engineering Department, Nawroz University, Iraq
  • Ibrahim Hasan Farman Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Zakho, Iraq
  • Ahmed Mohammed Ahmed Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Zakho, Iraq
Volume: 14 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 13012-13016 | February 2024 | https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.6740


Tire waste constitutes an undesirable surplus within urban industrial contexts, presenting a persistent annual increase on a global scale. Consequently, the reduction of tire waste through alternative approaches has attracted the interest of researchers around the world. This study evaluated the efficacy of using tire shreds as soil stabilizers to enhance the strength properties of the mixture in three proportions. Tire shred content of 10, 20, and 30% resulted in reduced CBR values of 3.3, 2.98, and 2.3%, respectively, compared to 4.4% without tire shred content. In addition, the direct shear test revealed that the increase in tire shred content significantly increased shear stress, as 10, 20, and 30% tire shred content resulted in 82.25, 84.14, and 85.87 kPa, respectively. Consequently, tire pieces can be used along with soil as an alternative mixture material in retaining structures.


soil stabilization, tire shreds, CBR, shear stress


Download data is not yet available.


S. Ziegler, D. Leshchinsky, H. I. Ling, and E. B. Perry, "Effect of Short Polymeric Fibers on Crack Development in Clays," Soils and Foundations, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 247–253, Mar. 1998.

P. Kulanthaivel, B. Soundara, S. Velmurugan, and V. Naveenraj, "Experimental investigation on stabilization of clay soil using nano-materials and white cement," Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 45, pp. 507–511, Jan. 2021.

G. S. Hambirao and P. G. Rakaraddi, "Soil Stabilization Using Waste Shredded Rubber Tyre Chips," IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 20–27, 2014.

S. Marathe, B. Shankar Rao, and A. Kumar, "Stabilization of Lithomargic Soil Using Cement and Randomly Distributed Waste Shredded Rubber Tyre Chips," International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 284–288, May 2015.

A. Tortum, C. Çelik, and A. Cüneyt Aydin, "Determination of the optimum conditions for tire rubber in asphalt concrete," Building and Environment, vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 1492–1504, Nov. 2005.

M. A. Al-Neami, "Stabilization of sandy soil using recycle waste tire chips," GEOMATE Journal, vol. 15, no. 48, pp. 175–180, 2018.

A. A. Habibi, M. Fallah Tafti, S. Narani, and M. Abbaspour, "Effects of waste tire textile fibres on geotechnical properties of compacted lime-stabilized low plastic clays," International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1118–1134, Oct. 2021.

I. M. Kareem, L. A. Abdulkareem, and H. I. Al-Barudi, "Surface and Deep Soil 222Rn Gas Exhalation Comparison: A Case Study in Tawke, Duhok, Northern Iraq," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 4741–4744, Oct. 2019.

G. R. Otoko, "A Review of the Stabilization of Problematic Soils," International Journal of Engineering and Technology Research, vol. 2, no. 5, 2014.

D. T. Bergado, S. Youwai, and A. Rittirong, "Strength and deformation characteristics of flat and cubical rubber tyre chip–sand mixtures," Géotechnique, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 603–606, Oct. 2005.

M. Sienkiewicz, J. Kucinska-Lipka, H. Janik, and A. Balas, "Progress in used tyres management in the European Union: A review," Waste Management, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 1742–1751, Oct. 2012.

L. Liu, G. Cai, J. Zhang, X. Liu, and K. Liu, "Evaluation of engineering properties and environmental effect of recycled waste tire-sand/soil in geotechnical engineering: A compressive review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 126, Jul. 2020, Art. no. 109831.

D. Akbarimehr, E. Aflaki, and A. Eslami, "Experimental Investigation of the Densification Properties of Clay Soil Mixes with Tire Waste," Civil Engineering Journal, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 363–372, Feb. 2019.

J. S. Yadav and S. K. Tiwari, "The impact of end-of-life tires on the mechanical properties of fine-grained soil: A Review," Environment, Development and Sustainability, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 485–568, Apr. 2019.

M. Šourková and D. Adamcová, "Establishing Impact of the Long-Term Action of Waste Dumps with the Occurrence of Waste Tires on the Soil Environment," Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 3787–3798, Jul. 2023.

D. Akbarimehr and E. Aflaki, "An Experimental Study on the Effect of Tire Powder on the Geotechnical Properties of Clay Soils," Civil Engineering Journal, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 594–601, Apr. 2018.

M. O. Karkush, "Impacts of Soil Contamination on the Response of Piles Foundation under a Combination of Loading," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 917–922, Feb. 2016.

M. F. Attom, "The use of shredded waste tires to improve the geotechnical engineering properties of sands," Environmental Geology, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 497–503, Feb. 2006.

A. Deng and J. R. Feng, "Granular Lightweight Fill Composed of Sand and Tire Scrap," Characterization, Modeling, and Performance of Geomaterials: Selected Papers From the 2009 GeoHunan International Conference, pp. 78–85, Apr. 2012.

H. Cetin, M. Fener, and O. Gunaydin, "Geotechnical properties of tire-cohesive clayey soil mixtures as a fill material," Engineering Geology, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 110–120, Nov. 2006.

A. Marto, N. Latifi, R. Moradi, M. Oghabi, and S. Y. Zolfeghari, "Shear Properties of Sand – Tire Chips Mixtures," Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 325–334, 2013.

D. A. Mangnejo, S. J. Oad, S. A. Kalhoro, S. Ahmed, F. H. Laghari, and Z. A. Siyal, "Numerical Analysis of Soil Slope Stabilization by Soil Nailing Technique," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 4469–4473, Aug. 2019.

Z. Yang, Q. Zhang, W. Shi, J. Lv, Z. Lu, and X. Ling, "Advances in Properties of Rubber Reinforced Soil," Advances in Civil Engineering, vol. 2020, Dec. 2020, Art. no. e6629757.

G. J. Foose, C. H. Benson, and P. J. Bosscher, "Sand Reinforced with Shredded Waste Tires," Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 122, no. 9, pp. 760–767, Sep. 1996.

A. Edinçliler, G. Baykal, and A. Saygılı, "Influence of different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires in embankment construction," Waste Management, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1073–1080, Jun. 2010.

R. K. Dutta and G. V. Rao, "Tire Shreds in Highway Construction – State of The Art," presented at the National Conference on Materials and their Application in Civil Engineering, Hamirpur, India, Aug. 2004.

E. T. Mohamad, N. Latifi, A. Marto, and R. Moradi, "Effects of Relative Density on Shear Strength Characteristics of Sand-Tire Chips Mixture," Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 18, pp. 623–632, 2013.

K. Adalier and A. Pamuk, "On the Important Mechanical Properties of Rubber-Sand," Advanced Materials Research, vol. 685, pp. 8–14, 2013.

A. Mohajerani et al., "Recycling waste rubber tyres in construction materials and associated environmental considerations: A review," Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 155, Apr. 2020, Art. no. 104679.

T. H. Dickson, D. F. Dwyer, and D. N. Humphrey, "Prototype Tire-Shred Embankment Construction," Transportation Research Record, vol. 1755, no. 1, pp. 160–167, Jan. 2001.

B. Tiwari, B. Ajmera, S. Moubayed, A. Lemmon, K. Styler, and J. G. Martinez, "Improving Geotechnical Behavior of Clayey Soils with Shredded Rubber Tires—Preliminary Study," in Geo-Congress 2014: Geo-characterization and Modeling for Sustainability, Mar. 2014, pp. 3734–3743.

H. Pourfarid, "The potential of using waste tire as a soil stabilizer," MSc Thesis, Eastern Mediterranean University (EMU) - Doğu Akdeniz Üniversitesi (DAÜ), Famagusta, Cyprus, 2013.

S. Ghadr, S. Mirsalehi, and A. Assadi Langroudi, "Compacted Expansive Elastic Silt and Tyre Powder Waste," Geomechanics and Engineering, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 535–543, Aug. 2019.

"ASTM D2487-17: Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)." American Society for Testing and Materials, 2017.

"ASTM D6270-08: Standard Practice for Use of Scrap Tires in Civil Engineering Applications." American Society for Testing and Materials, 2008.

"ASTM D422-63: Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils." American Society for Testing and Materials, 1998.

"ASTM D4318-17e1: Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils." American Society for Testing and Materials, 2017.

"ASTM D1157-91: Standard Test Method for Total Inhibitor Content (TBC) of Light Hydrocarbons." 2019.

"ASTM D1883-16: Standard Test Method for California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of Laboratory-Compacted Soils." American Society for Testing and Materials, 2016.

"ASTM D3080/D3080M-11: Standard Test Method for Direct Shear Test of Soils Under Consolidated Drained Conditions." American Society for Testing and Materials.


How to Cite

I. M. K. Artoshi, L. A. Abdulateef, I. H. Farman, and A. M. Ahmed, “Efficiency and Durability Assessment of Soil Stabilization using Waste Tire Shreds”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 13012–13016, Feb. 2024.


Abstract Views: 77
PDF Downloads: 47

Metrics Information