Comparative Studies on Load Frequency Control with Different Governors connected to Mini Hydro Power Plant via PSCAD Software


  • Majed Masmali Industrial Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Northern Border University, Saudi Arabia
  • Mamdouh I. Elimy Industrial Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Northern Border University, Saudi Arabia
  • Mohamed Fterich Industrial Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Northern Border University, Saudi Arabia | Laboratory of Electromechanical Systems (LASEM), University of Sfax, Tunisia
  • Ezzeddine Touti Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, Northern Border University, Saudi Arabia | Department of Electrical Engineering, ENSIT, Laboratory of Industrial Systems Engineering and Renewable Energies, University of Tunis, Tunisia
  • Ghulam Abbas School of Electrical Engineering, Southeast University, China
Volume: 14 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 12975-12983 | February 2024 |


Mini Hydropower Plants (MHPPs) are increasingly popular for rural electrification in developing nations due to their ecologically friendly operation. However, constant load fluctuation in these facilities poses a speed control issue. The mechanical, hydraulic governor, commonly used to face this challenge, cannot provide the best speed control due to its mechanical component system. Thus, an electrohydraulic PID-based governor is proposed to control the frequency and speed of MHPPs in a distribution network. This governor’s suitability for regulating the system's frequency in response to significant load variations within the distribution network is going to be determined in this study. The small hydropower plant and distribution system are modeled using the PSCAD software. A comparison between the mechanical hydraulic governor and the electro-PID governor was conducted by analyzing load fluctuations between 5% and 20%. The electro-PID governor responded faster and more actively to load connections and disconnections than the mechanical hydraulic governor, as the latter reduces large overshoots and undershoots, which can be dangerous and damaging to equipment. The electro-PID governor also helps to maintain a stable frequency within acceptable limits, ensuring smooth operation and minimizing the risk of system failures or disruptions.


control, energy, frequency, governor, load, Renewable energy sources integration


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How to Cite

M. Masmali, M. I. Elimy, M. Fterich, E. Touti, and G. Abbas, “Comparative Studies on Load Frequency Control with Different Governors connected to Mini Hydro Power Plant via PSCAD Software”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 12975–12983, Feb. 2024.


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