A System Dynamics Approach to Feedback Processes in Project Scheduling

Authors

  • Babatunde Omoniyi Odedairo Department of Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering in Al-kharj, Prince Sattam Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia | Department of Industrial and Production Engineering, University of Ibadan, Nigeria https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8584-6803
  • Ali Alarjani Department of Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering in Al-kharj, Prince Sattam Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
Volume: 14 | Issue: 2 | Pages: 13201-13207 | April 2024 | https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.6666

Abstract

Projects, as catalysts for proactive transformation, offer a temporary and adaptable framework that effectively handles complexities (or uncertainties) within a competitive corporate landscape. Hence, the use of an effective project management framework, such as Dynamic Project Scheduling (DPS), is a method to handle intricacies in order to accomplish organizational objectives. DPS refers to a triangle interaction involving baseline scheduling, schedule risk analysis, and project control while supporting schedule adjustment in response to changes and uncertainties. However, there is a lack of information regarding studies that have investigated the feedback mechanisms among DPS components. This study was designed to examine the counterintuitive relationships between these components using system dynamics. The quantities within the DPS system were identified and defined. A casual loop diagram was used to illustrate the interactions among these quantities. Subsequently, a Stock and Flow Diagram (SFD) was created to identify the inputs, states, and flow mechanisms within the DPS. Using the SFD, a system dynamics expression was generated which was then employed to compute the rate of change of the Budgeted Cost of Work Remaining (BCWR) for two projects at different time intervals. The results properly indicated the period of idleness during project execution. The use of BCWR rather than schedule variance provides a more effective visual representation for evaluating performance and tracking progress. The BCWR and planned value exhibit contrasting trends, highlighting the importance of earned value quantities in project control. The use of system dynamics in project management can enhance the planning and scheduling phase, allow project managers to monitor pertinent performance measures, and optimize project outcomes through informed decisions.

Keywords:

system dynamics, dynamic project scheduling, project performance measures, budgeted cost of work remaining, project scheduling

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

A. Jaafari, "Project Management in the Age of Complexity and Change," Project Management Journal, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 47–57, Dec. 2003.

G. Winch, M.-C. Meunier, J. Head, and K. Russ, "Projects as the content and process of change: The case of the health and safety laboratory," International Journal of Project Management, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 141–152, Feb. 2012.

N. G. Hall, "Project management: Recent developments and research opportunities," Journal of Systems Science and Systems Engineering, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 129–143, Jun. 2012.

B. O. Odedairo, "Development of scheduling heuristic for the resource constrained project management problem with idleness cost," Ph.D. dissertation, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, 2016.

P. W. G. Morris, J. K. Pinto, J. Söderlund, P. W. G. Morris, J. K. Pinto, and J. Söderlund, Eds., The Oxford Handbook of Project Management. in Oxford Handbooks. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2011.

A. Shtub, J. F. Bard, and S. Globerson, Project Management: Engineering, Technology, and Implementation. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Prentice Hall, 1994.

J. D. Sterman, Business Dynamics: Systems Thinking and Modeling for a Complex World. New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill Education, 2000.

"Project Failure Statistics: The Shocking Truth," www.projectmanagementworks.co.uk, Oct. 14, 2021. https://www.projectmanagementworks.co.uk/project-failure-statistics/.

PMI, Navigating Complexity: A Practice Guide. Newtown Square, PA, USA: Project Management Institute, 2014.

B. O. Odedairo, E. H. Alaba, and I. Edem, "A System Dynamics Model To determine the value of inventory holding cost," Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 112–123, Jul. 2020.

L. A. Malczynski, "Best practices for system dynamics model design and construction with powersim studio.," Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA, SAND2011-4108, Jun. 2011.

P. S. Szwed, Expert Judgment in Project Management: Narrowing the Theory-Practice Gap. Newtown Square, PA, USA: Project Management Institute, 2016.

F. Cosenz and G. Noto, "Applying System Dynamics Modelling to Strategic Management: A Literature Review," Systems Research and Behavioral Science, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 703–741, 2016.

D. J. Currie, C. Smith, and P. Jagals, "The application of system dynamics modelling to environmental health decision-making and policy - a scoping review," BMC Public Health, vol. 18, no. 1, Mar. 2018, Art. no. 402.

F. Redivo, "Introduction to System Dynamics Modeling," System Dynamics Society, Oct. 21, 2021. https://systemdynamics.org/introduction-to-system-dynamics-modeling/.

Y. Wang, Y. Li, and P. Guo, "Modelling Construction Project Management Based on System Dynamics," Metallurgical and Mining Industry, no. 9, pp. 1056–1061, 2015.

M. Kamali Saraji and A. Morovati Sharifabadi, "Application of System Dynamics in Forecasting: A Systematic Review," International Journal of Management, Accounting and Economics, vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 1192–1205, Dec. 2017.

O. L. Adepitan, "Risk Assessment of Nigerian Road Construction Projects: A System Dynamics Approach," Ibadan, Nigeria, 2021.

J. M. Lyneis and D. N. Ford, "System dynamics applied to project management: a survey, assessment, and directions for future research," System Dynamics Review, vol. 23, no. 2–3, pp. 157–189, 2007.

T. Sirovs, "System Dynamic Theoretical Framework for Construction Management: A Case of Baltic States," Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 113–128, Jan. 2022.

A. M. Zainab and J. K. Cheng, "Using System Dynamics Simulation To Understand The Feedback Process In A Construction Project," International Journal of Industrial Management, vol. 3, 2017.

J. Wan and Y. Liu, "A System Dynamics Model for Risk Analysis during Project Construction Process," Open Journal of Social Sciences, vol. 2, no. 6, Jun. 2014, Art. no. 46686.

O. A. Aiyetan and D. Das, "Using system dynamics modelling principles to resolve problems of rework in construction projects in Nigeria," Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 1266–1295, Dec. 2015.

J. M. Nevison and K. J. Chichakly, "Latent Errors and Visible Earned Value: How the Evolutionary Model Integrates Earned Value Metrics with Project System Dynamics," Systems, vol. 9, no. 4, Dec. 2021, Art. no. 88.

B. O. Odedairo and V. Oladokun, "Relevance and Applicability of Multi-objective Resource Constrained Project Scheduling Problem: Review Article," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 144–150, Dec. 2011.

M. Vanhoucke, Integrated Project Management Sourcebook. New York, NY, USA: Springer, 2016.

S. Sohu, A. H. Abdullah, S. Nagapan, T. A. Rind, and A. A. Jhatial, "Controlling Measures for Cost Overrun Causes in Highway Projects of Sindh Province," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 4276–4280, Jun. 2019.

W. Herroelen, E. Demeulemeester, and B. De Reyck, "A Classification Scheme for Project Scheduling," in Project Scheduling, vol. 14, J. Weglarz, Ed. Boston, MA, USA: Springer, 1999, pp. 1–26.

M. Padalkar and S. Gopinath, "Six decades of project management research: Thematic trends and future opportunities," International Journal of Project Management, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1305–1321, Oct. 2016.

M. Vanhoucke, "On the use of schedule risk analysis for project management," Journal of Modern Project Management, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 108–117, 2015.

E. Uyttewaal, "A schedule as a valid and dynamic model," presented at the PMI® Global Congress 2005—North America, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2005.

M. Vanhoucke, "An Overview of Recent Research Results and Future Research Avenues Using Simulation Studies in Project Management," International Scholarly Research Notices, vol. 2013, Oct. 2013, Art. no. e513549.

J. Song, A. Martens, and M. Vanhoucke, "Using Earned Value Management and Schedule Risk Analysis with resource constraints for project control," European Journal of Operational Research, vol. 297, no. 2, pp. 451–466, Mar. 2022.

R. K. Chakrabortty, H. F. Rahman, and M. J. Ryan, "Efficient priority rules for project scheduling under dynamic environments: A heuristic approach," Computers & Industrial Engineering, vol. 140, Feb. 2020, Art. no. 106287.

B. O. Odedairo and N. Nwabuokei, "Framework for Operational Performance Measurements in Small and Medium Scale Industries Using Discrete Event Simulation Approach," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 3103–3107, Aug. 2018.

"Research | Operations Research & Scheduling Research Group." https://www.projectmanagement.ugent.be/research.

B. O. Odedairo, "Managing Spare Parts Inventory by Incorporating Holding Costs and Storage Constraints," Journal of Engineering, Project, and Production Management, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 139–144, May 2021.

Downloads

How to Cite

[1]
B. O. Odedairo and A. Alarjani, “A System Dynamics Approach to Feedback Processes in Project Scheduling”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 13201–13207, Apr. 2024.

Metrics

Abstract Views: 97
PDF Downloads: 111

Metrics Information

Most read articles by the same author(s)