Analyzing Embankment Displacement: PVD and Vacuum Consolidation with Sheet Pile Protection


  • Trong Nghia Nguyen Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City Open University, Vietnam
  • Xuan Khanh Nguyen Nguyen Hoang Construction Development Ltd., Vietnam
  • Phu Huan Vo Nguyen Infrastructural Technique Department, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City Open University, Vietnam
Volume: 14 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 12711-12715 | February 2024 |


The global widespread adoption of Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVD) in conjunction with vacuum consolidation is driven by its robust and cost-efficient attributes. However, this construction method is not without challenges, as it has been linked to substantial displacements, posing risks to adjacent structures. Addressing such concerns in a Vietnamese road construction project, this study focuses on the innovative contribution of sheet pile protection as a highly effective solution. Utilizing numerical analysis with an anisotropic model, we examine the impact of sheet pile protection on embankment displacement. Through comparative analysis with field data, our study demonstrates the remarkable efficacy of the sheet pile method in significantly reducing both vertical and lateral settlements. Acting as a protective membrane, it effectively counters suction from the PVD vacuum zone. These findings make a substantial contribution to the field, providing engineers handling similar structural protection scenarios with invaluable insights and a novel approach to mitigating displacements associated with PVD and vacuum consolidation.


PVD, sheetpile, lateral displacement, vacuum consolidation


Download data is not yet available.


D. T. Bergado et al., "Case study and numerical simulation of PVD improved soft Bangkok clay with surcharge and vacuum preloading using a modified air-water separation system," Geotextiles and Geomembranes, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 137–153, Feb. 2022.

J. Chai, C. y. Ong, J. P. Carter, and D. t. Bergado, "Lateral displacement under combined vacuum pressure and embankment loading," Géotechnique, vol. 63, no. 10, pp. 842–856, Aug. 2013.

Y. Lu, J. Chai, and W.-Q. Ding, "Predicting deformation of PVD improved deposit under vacuum and surcharge loads," Geotextiles and Geomembranes, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 32–40, Feb. 2020.

J. Chai and S. G. Rondonuwu, "Surcharge loading rate for minimizing lateral displacement of PVD improved deposit with vacuum pressure," Geotextiles and Geomembranes, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 558–566, Nov. 2015.

P. H. V. Nguyen, T. D. Tran, and P. C. Nguyen, "Effect Factors on Unconfined Compressive Strength of Soil-Cement Columns: The Case Study of Ba Ria, Vung Tau, Vietnam," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 10352–10356, Apr. 2023.

P. H. V. Nguyen and P. C. Nguyen, "Effects of Shaft Grouting on the Bearing Behavior of Barrette Piles: A Case Study in Ho Chi Minh City," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 7653–7657, Oct. 2021.

T.-D. Tran and P.-H. V. Nguyen, "Computation of Limit Loads for Bending Plates," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 10466–10470, Apr. 2023.

T. N. Nguyen, D. T. Bergado, M. Kikumoto, P. H. Dang, S. Chaiyaput, and P.-C. Nguyen, "A simple solution for prefabricated vertical drain with surcharge preloading combined with vacuum consolidation," Geotextiles and Geomembranes, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 304–322, Feb. 2021.

T. Nghia-Nguyen, S. K. Shukla, D. D. C. Nguyen, L. G. Lam, P. H-Dang, and P.-C. Nguyen, "A new discrete method for solution to consolidation problem of ground with vertical drains subjected to surcharge and vacuum loadings," Engineering Computations, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 1213–1236, Jan. 2019.

N. T. Nghia, L. G. Lam, and S. K. Shukla, "A New Approach to Solution for Partially Penetrated Prefabricated Vertical Drains," International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering, vol. 4, no. 2, Mar. 2018, Art. no. 11.

T. Nghia-Nguyen, M. Kikumoto, S. Khatir, S. Chaiyaput, H. Nguyen-Xuan, and T. Cuong-Le, "Data-driven approach to solve vertical drain under time-dependent loading," Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 696–711, Jun. 2021.

T. Nghia-Nguyen, S. K. Shukla, P. H. Dang, L. G. Lam, S. Khatir, and T. Cuong-Le, "Numerical Modeling of Prefabricated Vertical Drain with Vacuum Consolidation Technique," Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 15–31, Feb. 2022.

J.-C. Chai, J. P. Carter, and S. Hayashi, "Vacuum consolidation and its combination with embankment loading," Canadian Geotechnical Journal, vol. 43, no. 10, pp. 985–996, Oct. 2006.

S. J. Wheeler, A. Näätänen, M. Karstunen, and M. Lojander, "An anisotropic elastoplastic model for soft clays," Canadian Geotechnical Journal, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 403–418, Apr. 2003.

M. Pastor, O. C. Zienkiewicz, and A. H. C. Chan, "Generalized plasticity and the modelling of soil behaviour," International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 151–190, 1990.

J.-C. Chai, S.-L. Shen, N. Miura, and D. T. Bergado, "Simple Method of Modeling PVD-Improved Subsoil," Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 127, no. 11, pp. 965–972, Nov. 2001.


How to Cite

T. N. Nguyen, X. K. Nguyen, and P. H. Vo Nguyen, “Analyzing Embankment Displacement: PVD and Vacuum Consolidation with Sheet Pile Protection”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 12711–12715, Feb. 2024.


Abstract Views: 44
PDF Downloads: 43

Metrics Information

Most read articles by the same author(s)