Atmospheric CO2 Level Measurement and Discomfort Index Calculation with the use of Low-Cost Drones
Received: 26 July 2023 | Revised: 10 August 2023 | Accepted: 26 August 2023 | Online: 13 October 2023
Corresponding author: Piyush Kokate
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms are emerging as an essential tool for various studies in environmental engineering. The quadcopters drones have immense potential for sensor interfacing and stable data acquisition. These UAVs can perform critical activities like volcanic eruption monitoring, stack emission monitoring, urban air quality monitoring, identification of pollution levels in 3D space, etc. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and the Discomfort Index (DI) are essential indicators of air quality and climate comfort. Hence, it is critical to monitor them with extreme accuracy. This study demonstrates a novel application of CO2 profiling using low-cost drones at varied altitudes. The drone-aided vertical CO2 profiling was carried out at 60 m AGL (Above Ground Level) during summer and winter, in Nagpur city of India. This study retrieved some exciting data on the DI. It was found that CO2 concentration in the range of 20-70 m AGL was lower than the surface level. The derived DI was maximum at the height range of 40-50 m. Inversion was observed in the range of 30-40 m. A positive correlation between CO2 and temperature was observed in both seasons. The lightweight commercial drones are capable of tethering sensor modules to get accurate results in less cost and effort. This type of novel tethered sensor technique could be applicable in weather forecasting, landfill surface monitoring, volcanic eruption monitoring, and other probable applications with few drone flight limits.
Keywords:vertical profiling, CO2 profile, sensors, discomfort index, NDIR
A. Kout, B. Bouaita, A. Beghriche, S. Labed, S. Chikhi, and E.-B. Bourennane, "A Hybrid Optimization Solution for UAV Network Routing," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 10270–10278, Apr. 2023.
N. Harkat, A. Rahmane, and I. Bendjemila, "The Impact of Industrial Air Pollution on the Urban Environment of Setif: Modeling and Mapping of Total Suspended Particles," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 9431–9439, Dec. 2022.
M. Alquraish and K. Abuhasel, "Sustainable Hybrid Design to Ensure Efficiency and Air Quality of Solar Air Conditioning," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 11036–11041, Jun. 2023.
R. Mlambo, I. H. Woodhouse, F. Gerard, and K. Anderson, "Structure from Motion (SfM) Photogrammetry with Drone Data: A Low Cost Method for Monitoring Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Forests in Developing Countries," Forests, vol. 8, no. 3, Mar. 2017, Art. no. 68.
S. Martin, J. Bange, and F. Beyrich, "Meteorological profiling of the lower troposphere using the research UAV ‘M2AV Carolo,’" Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 705–716, Apr. 2011.
J. G. J. Olivier and J. A. H. W. Peters, Trends in global CO2 and total greenhouse gas emissions: 2019 Report. Hague, Netherlands: PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, 2019.
R. Moriwaki and M. Kanda, "Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide, temperature, and water vapor within and above a suburban canopy layer in winter," presented at the Sixth Symposium on the Urban Environment, 14th Joint Conference on the Applications of Air Pollution Meteorology with the Air and Waste Management Association, 2006.
Z.-R. Peng, D. Wang, Z. Wang, Y. Gao, and S. Lu, "A study of vertical distribution patterns of PM2.5 concentrations based on ambient monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicles: A case in Hangzhou, China," Atmospheric Environment, vol. 123, pp. 357–369, Dec. 2015.
D. C. Harris, "Charles David Keeling and the Story of Atmospheric CO2 Measurements," Analytical Chemistry, vol. 82, no. 19, pp. 7865–7870, Oct. 2010.
A. Engel and U. Schmidt, "Vertical profile measurements of carbonylsulfide in the stratosphere," Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 21, no. 20, pp. 2219–2222, 1994.
J. Wivou, L. Udawatta, A. Alshehhi, E. Alzaabi, A. Albeloshi, and S. Alfalasi, "Air quality monitoring for sustainable systems via drone based technology," in 2016 IEEE International Conference on Information and Automation for Sustainability (ICIAfS), Galle, Sri Lanka, Sep. 2016.
D. R. Lyon, R. A. Alvarez, D. Zavala-Araiza, A. R. Brandt, R. B. Jackson, and S. P. Hamburg, "Aerial Surveys of Elevated Hydrocarbon Emissions from Oil and Gas Production Sites," Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 4877–4886, May 2016.
S.-J. Lu et al., "Investigating the Role of Meteorological Factors in the Vertical Variation in PM2.5 by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Measurement," Aerosol and Air Quality Research, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 1493–1507, 2019.
M. A. Boon, A. P. Drijfhout, and S. Tesfamichael, "Comparison of a Fixed-Wing and Multi-Rotor Uav for Environmental Mapping Applications: A Case Study," The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, vol. XLII-2-W6, pp. 47–54, Aug. 2017.
"Welcome to DigitalSky," DigitalSky. https://digitalsky.dgca.gov.in/home.
E. Stott, R. D. Williams, and T. B. Hoey, "Ground Control Point Distribution for Accurate Kilometre-Scale Topographic Mapping Using an RTK-GNSS Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and SfM Photogrammetry," Drones, vol. 4, no. 3, Sep. 2020, Art. no. 55.
H. Xu, X. Hu, H. Guan, and G. He, "Development of a fine-scale discomfort index map and its application in measuring living environments using remotely-sensed thermal infrared imagery," Energy and Buildings, vol. 150, pp. 598–607, Sep. 2017.
J. Wang et al., "Simulation of diurnal variations of CO2, water and heat fluxes over winter wheat with a model coupled photosynthesis and transpiration," Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 137, no. 3, pp. 194–219, Apr. 2006.
M. Ray, P. Samal, and C. K. Panigrahi, "Implementation of a Hybrid Technique for the Predictive Control of the Residential Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Systems," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 8772–8776, Jun. 2022.
R. Wang, C. Zhao, W. Li, and Y. Qi, "Research on Thermal Comfort Equation of Comfort Temperature Range Based on Chinese Thermal Sensation Characteristics," in Advances in Manufacturing, Production Management and Process Control, 2020, pp. 254–265.
C. Zhu et al., "Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels this century will alter the protein, micronutrients, and vitamin content of rice grains with potential health consequences for the poorest rice-dependent countries," Science Advances, vol. 4, no. 5, Dec. 2018, Art. no. eaaq1012.
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 242
PDF Downloads: 169
Copyright (c) 2023 Piyush Kokate, Shashikant Sadistap, Anirban Middey
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.