### STATCOM – A Preface to Power Quality in Power Systems Performance

#### Abstract

This paper investigates different types of Flexible AC transmission System (FACTS) controllers with focus on various operational and control aspects of static synchronous compensators (STATCOM) to different performance characteristics like power transfer capability, voltage regulation, reactive power management, stability limits, power factor improvement etc. In addition, various features related to STATCOM like converter topologies, reference compensating signal generation schemes, controllers, and generation of switching signals are reviewed.

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Y. Shi, B. Liu, S. Duan, “Non Ideal Effect of Current Transformer and Its Influence on Controller Design of Cascade Multilevel STATCOM”, IEEE 3rd International Symposium on Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems, Aalborg, Denmark, pp. 410-415, 2012

P. S. Sensarma, K. R. Padiyar, V. Ramanarayanan, “Analysis and Performance Evaluation of A Distribution STATCOM for Compensating Voltage Fluctuations”, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 259-264, 2001

W. Song, Z. Yang, Y. Liu, A. H. B. Chen, “A Layered Modular Controller Structure for Multilevel Converters”, IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, Orlando, Florida, pp. 1448-1452, 2007

K. Josh, A. Behal, A. K. Jain, N. Mohan, “A Comparative Study of Control Strategies for Fast Voltage Regulation with STATCOM”, IEEE 30th Annual Conference of Industrial Electronics Society, Busan, South Korea, Vol. 1, pp. 187-192, 2004

A. K. Jain, A. Behal, N. Mohan, “System Modeling and Control Design for Fast Voltage Regulation Using STATCOM”, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 726-735, 2006

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Y. Liu, S. Bhattacharya, W. Song, A. Q. Huang, “Control Strategy for Cascade Multilevel Inverter Based STATCOM with Optimal Combination Modulation”, IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, Rhodes, Greece, pp. 4812-4818, 2008

Y. Liu, S. Doss, W. Song, Q. Chen, S. S. Mundkur, T. Zhao, A. Q. Huang, S. Bhattacharya, “ETO Light Multilevel Inverter for STATCOM”, IEEE 34th Annual Conference of Industrial Electronics, pp. 3246-3251, 2008

Y. Liu, A. Q. Huang, W. Song, S. Bhattacharya, G. Tan, “Small-Signal Model-Based Control Strategy for Balancing Individual DC Capacitor Voltages in Cascade Multilevel Inverter-Based STATCOM”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 56, No. 6, pp. 2259-2269, 2009

S. Mohagheghi, G. K. Venayagamoorthy, R. G. Harley, “Optimal Wide Area Controller and State Predictor for a Power System”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 693-705, 2007

H. Norouzi, A. M. Sharaf, “A Novel Control Scheme for the STATCOM Stability Enhancement”, IEEE PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition, Dallas, Texas, Vol. 1, pp. 24-29, 2003

S. K. Routray, N. Nayak, P. K. Rout, “An MIWO Based Approach of Power System Transient Stability Enhancement with STATCOM”, IEEE International Conference on Energy, Automation, and Signal, Bhubaneswar, India, pp. 1-7, 2011

Y. O. Lee, H. J. Kang, Y. Han, C. C. Chung, “A Nonlinear Control for a BTB STATCOM System With Asymmetrically Structured Converters”, IEEE Trondheim Power Tech., Trondheim, Norway, pp. 1-8, 2011

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A. H. M. A. Rahim, S. A. Al-Baiyat, F. M. Kandlawala, “A Robust STATCOM Controller for Power System Dynamic Performance Enhancement” IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, Vol. 2, Vancouver, Canada, pp. 887-892, 2001

H. Zhang, Z. Zha, M. Zhang, X. Zha, “The Study on the Application of Repetitive Control in STATCOM”, IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Intelligent Systems, Xiamen, China, Vol. 3, pp. 502-506, 2010

H. X. Guo, Y. Q. Liu, J. Wu, J. M. Yang, “A Reinforcement Learning Approach to STATCOM Controller”, IEEE International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring and Power Technologies, Hong Kong, Vol. 2, pp. 638-642, 2004

K. Kobayashi, M. Goto, K. Wu, Y. Yokomizu, T. Matsumura, “Power System Stability Improvement by Energy Storage Type STATCOM”, IEEE Bologna Power Tech Conference Proceedings, Bologna, Italy, Vol. 2, 2003

M. Saeedifard, R. Iravani, J. Pou, “Control and DC-Capacitor Voltage Balancing of A Space Vector-Modulated Five-Level STATCOM”, IET Power Electronics, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 203-215, 2009

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M. Saeedifard, R. Iravani, J. Pou, “A Space Vector Modulation Approach for a Back-to-Back Connected Four-Level Converter”, IEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, Orlando, Florida, pp. 2043-2049, 2007

M. Saeedifard, R. Iravani, J. Pou, “Analysis and Control of DC-Capacitor-Voltage-Drift Phenomenon of a Passive Front-End Five-Level Converter”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 54, No. 6, pp. 3255-3266, 2007

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R. Sternberger, D. Jovcic, “Theoretical Framework for Minimizing Converter Losses and Harmonics in a Multilevel STATCOM”, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 2376-2384, 2008

D. Jovcic, R. Sternberger, “Robust Controller Design for a Multilevel Cascaded STATCOM”, IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting - Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, pp. 1-6, 2008

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M. M. Farsangi, Y. H. Song, Y. Z. Sun, “Supplementary Control Design of SVC and STATCOM Using H∞ Optimal Robust Control”, IEEE International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation and Restructuring and Power Technologies, London, UK, pp. 355-360, 2002

M. M. Farsangi, Y. H. Song, W. L. Fang, X. F. Wang, “Robust FACTS Control Design Using The H∞ Loop-Shaping Method”, IEE Proceedings Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Vol. 149, No. 3, pp. 352-358, 2002

S. Sirisukprasert, Y. Liu, Z. Xu, B. Zhang, X. Zhou, J. Hawley, A. Q. Huang, “Power Stage and Control Design for the ETO-Based Cascaded-Multilevel Converter for FACTS Applications”, IEEE 4th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, Xi'an,China, Vol. 3, pp. 1111-1117, 2004

S. Sirisukprasert, A. Q. Huang, J. S. Lai, “Modeling, Analysis and Control of Cascaded-Multilevel Converter-Based STATCOM”, IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, Toronto, Canada, Vol. 4, pp. 2561- 2568, 2003

M. T. Bina, D. C. Hamill, “Average Circuit Model for Angle-Controlled STATCOM”, IEE Proceedings Electric Power Applications, Vol. 152, No. 3, pp. 653-659, 2005

M. Mahdavian, G. Shahgholian, N. Rasti, “Modeling and Damping Controller Design for Static Synchronous Compensator”, IEEE 6th International Conference on Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology, Pattaya, Chonburi, Vol. 1, pp. 300-304, 2009

J. Kumar, B. Das, P. Agarwal, “Indirect Voltage Control in Distribution System Using Cascade Multilevel Inverter Based STATCOM”, IEEE International Conference on Power and Energy Systems, Chennai, India, pp. 1-6, 2011

S. J. S. Tsai, Yun Chang, “Dynamic and Unbalance Voltage Compensation Using STATCOM”, IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting - Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, pp. 1-8, 2008

R. Milasi, A. Lynch, Y. W. Li, “Adaptive Control of a Voltage Source Converter for Power Factor Correction”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. PP, No. 99, pp. 1-24, 2012

R. Milasi, A. F. Lynch, Y. Li, “Adaptive Control of a Voltage Source Converter”, IEEE 23rd Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, Calgary, Canada pp. 1-4, 2010

V. K. Chandrakar, A. G. Kothari, “Comparison of RBFN Based STATCOM, SSSC and UPFC Controllers for Transient Stability Improvement”, IEEE/ PES Power Systems Conference and Exposition, Atlanta, Georgia, pp. 784-791, 2006

G. Reed, R. Pape, M. Takeda, “Advantages of Voltage Sourced Converter (VSC) Based Design Concepts for FACTS and HVDC-Link Applications”, IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, Toronto, Canada, Vol. 3, pp. 1816-1821, 2003

D. Soto, T. C. Green, “A DC Link Capacitor Voltages Control Strategy for a PWM Cascade STATCOM”, IEEE 36th Power Electronics Specialists Conference, Jeju, South Korea, pp. 2251-2256, 2006

D. Soto, T. C. Green, “A Comparison of High-Power Converter Topologies for the Implementation of FACTS Controllers”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 49, No. 5, pp. 1072-1080, 2002

D. Soto, T. C. Green, “Control of a Modular Multilevel Converter-Based HVDC Transmission System”, IEEE 14th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, Birmingham, England, pp. 1-10, 2011

R. E. Betz, T. J. Summers, B. J. Cook, “Outline of the Control Design for a Cascaded H-Bridge STATCOM”, IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, Edmonton, Canada, pp. 1-8, 2008

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R. E. Betz, B. J. Cook, T. J. Summers, R. Palmer, A. Bastiani, S. Shao, K. Willis, “Design and Development of an 11KV H-Bridge Multilevel STATCOM”, IEEE Power Engineering Conference, Singapore, pp. 1-6, 2007

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W. A. Reass, D. L. Borovina, V. W. Brown, J. D. Doss, R. F. Gribble, T. W. Hardek, M. T. Lynch, D. E. Reeq, P. J. Tmllerico, “The Polyphase Resonant Converter Modulator System for the Spallation Neutron Source Linear Accelerator”, IEEE 25th International Power Modulator Symposium, Hollywood, California, pp. 684-688, 2002

F. S. Ismail, M. A. Abido, “The Impact of STATCOM Based Stabilizers on Power System Stability, Using Intelligent Computational Optimization Approach”, IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies, Anaheim, California, pp. 1-13, 2011

B. Singh, R. Saha, “Enhancing Power Transfer Capacity of Transmission System by a Reduced Magnetics Based 48-Pulse STATCOM Controller”, IEEE Joint International Conference on Power System Technology, Delhi, India, pp. 1-8, 2008

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G. Narayanan, D. Zhao, H. K. Krishnamurthy, R. Ayyanar, V. T. Ranganathan, “Space Vector Based Hybrid PWM Techniques for Reduced Current Ripple”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 55, No. 4, pp. 1614-1622, 2008

G. Mondal, K. Gopakumar, P. N. Tekwani, E. Levi, “A Reduced-Switch-Count Five-Level Inverter with Common Mode Voltage Elimination for an Open-End Winding Induction Motor Drive”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 54, No. 4, pp. 2344-2351, 2007

S. Mahadevan, S. Raju, R. Muthu, “Elimination of Common Mode Voltage Using Phase Shifted Dual Source Matrix Converter with Improved Modulation Index”, The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Vol. 32, No. 6, pp. 2006-2026, 2013

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