Business Hypervisors for Real-time Applications

L. Perneel, H. Fayyad-Kazan, L. Peng, F. Guan, M. Timmerman

Abstract


System virtualization is one of the hottest trends in information technology today. It is not just another nice to use technology but has become fundamental across the business world. It is successfully used with many business application classes where cloud computing is the most visual one. Recently, it started to be used for soft Real-Time (RT) applications such as IP telephony, media servers, audio and video streaming servers, automotive and communication systems in general. Running these applications on a traditional system (Hardware + Operating System) guarantee their Quality of Service (QoS); virtualizing them means inserting a new layer between the hardware and the (virtual) Operating System (OS), and thus adding extra overhead. Although these applications’ areas do not always demand hard time guarantees, they require the underlying virtualization layer supports low latency and provide adequate computational resources for completion within a reasonable or predictable timeframe. These aspects are intimately intertwined with the logic of the hypervisor scheduler. In this paper, a series of tests are conducted on three hypervisors (VMware ESXi, Hyper-V server and Xen) to provide a benchmark of the latencies added to the applications running on top of them. These tests are conducted for different scenarios (use cases) to take into consideration all the parameters and configurations of the hypervisors’ schedulers. Finally, this benchmark can be used as a reference for choosing the best hypervisor-application combination.


Keywords


ESXi; Hyper-V; Virtualization; Xen; Real-time

Full Text:

PDF

References


F. Bazargan, C. Y. Yeun, M. J. Zemerly, “State-of-the-Art of Virtualization, its Security Threats and Deployment Models”, International Journal for Information Security Research,Vol. 2, No. 3-4, pp. 335-343, 2012

A. Desai, R. Oza, P. Sharma, B. Patel, “Hypervisor: A Survey on Concepts and Taxonomy”, International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 222-225, 2013

A. J. Younge, R. Henschel, J. Brown, G. Von Laszewski, J. Qiu, G. Fox, "Analysis of Virtualization Technologies for High Performance Computing Environments", IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD), Washington, USA, pp. 9-16, July 4-9, 2011

VMware, "Understanding Full Virtualization, Paravirtulization, and Hardware Assist", http://www.vmware.com/files/pdf/VMware_paravirtualization.pdf

E. Yuen, “How would explain the core differences in Hyper-V from VMware’s offerings?”, http://itknowledgeexchange.techtarget.com/itanswers/how-would-explain-the-core-differences-in-hyper-v-from-vmwares-offerings/

A. Syrewicze, “VMware vs. Hyper-V: Architectural Differences”, http://syrewiczeit.com/vmware-vs-hyper-v-architectural-differences/

J. Hwang, S. Zeng, F. Wu, T. Wood, “A Component-Based Performance Comparison of Four Hypervisors", 13th IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management (IM) Technical Session, Ghent, Belgium, pp. 269 – 276, May 27-31, 2013

J. Li, Q. Wang, D. Jayasinghe, J. Park, T. Zhu, C. Pu, "Performance overhead among Three Hypervisors: An experimental study using Hadoop Benchmarks", IEEE International Congress on Big Data, Santa Clara, USA, pp. 9-16, June 27-July 2, 2013

Microsoft, "Hyper-V architecture", http://msdn.microsoft.com/enus/library/cc768520%28v=bts.10%29.aspx

Microsoft, "Windows Server 2012 R2”, http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/server-cloud/products/windows-server-2012r2/#fbid=NQBnX04C5st

Microsoft Technet Blogs, "Hyper-V: Microkernelized or Monolithic", http://blogs.technet.com/b/chenley/archive/2011/02/23/hyper-v-microkernelized-or-monolithic.aspx.

Virtuatopia, "An Overview of the Hyper-V Architecture”, http://www.virtuatopia.com/index.php/An_Overview_of_the_Hyper-V_Architecture.

B. Armstrong, "Hyper-V CPU Scheduling–Part 1 - Ben Armstrong - Site Home - MSDN Blogs”, http://blogs.msdn.com/b/virtual_pc_guy/archive/2011/02/14/hyper-v-cpu-scheduling-part-1.aspx.

Microsoft TechNet Articles, "Hyper-V Concepts - vCPU (Virtual Processor)", http://social.technet.microsoft.com/wiki/contents/articles/1234.hyper-v-concepts-vcpu-virtual-processor.aspx?wa=wsignin1.0.

Xen Project Software Overview, http://wiki.xen.org/wiki/Xen_Project_Software_Overview

Linux Foundation, "Credit Scheduler”, http://wiki.xen.org/wiki/Credit_Scheduler

S. Yoo, K. H. Kwak, J. H. Jo, C. Yoo, "Toward Under-Millisecond I/O Latency in Xen-ARM", Second Asia-Pacific Workshop on Systems, APSys 2011, Shanghai, China, July 11-12, 2011

X. Xu, P. Sha, J. Wan, J. Yucheng, "Performance Evaluation of the CPU Scheduler in XEN", International Symposium on Information Science and Engineering, pp. 68-72, Shanghai, China, December 20-22, 2008

VMware, "The Architecture of VMware ESXi”, http://www.vmware.com/files/pdf/ESXi_architecture.pdf

MustBeGeek, "Difference between vSphere, ESXi and vCenter”, http://www.mustbegeek.com/difference-between-vsphere-esxi-and-vcenter/

C. Janssen, "What is VMware ESXi Server? - Definition from Techopedia”, http://www.techopedia.com/definition/25979/vmware-esxi-server

VMware, "The CPU Scheduler in VMware vSphere 5.1", Performance study-technical report

VMware, "vSphere Resource Management”, http://pubs.vmware.com/vsphere51/topic/com.vmware.ICbase/PDF/vsphere-esxi-vcenter-server-51-resource-management-guide.pdf.

Microsoft, "Hyper-V Overview”, http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/hh831531.aspx

Linux Foundation, "Xen Project Beginners Guide”, http://wiki.xenproject.org/wiki/Xen_Project_Beginners_Guide.

VMware, "Minimum system requirements for installing ESX/ESXi", http://kb.vmware.com/selfservice/microsites/search.do?language=en_US&cmd=displayKC&externalId=1003661

L. Perneel, H. Fayyad-Kazan, M. Timmerman, “Android and Real-Time Applications: Take Care!”, Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences, Vol. 4, No. ICCSII, pp. 38-47, 2013

H. Fayyad-Kazan, L. Perneel, M. Timmerman, “Linux PREEMPT-RT vs. commercial RTOSs: how big is the performance gap?”, GSTF Journal of Computing, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2013

M. T. Wiki, “Hyper-V Concepts - vCPU (Virtual Processor)”, http://social.technet.microsoft.com/wiki/contents/articles/1234.hyper-v-concepts-vcpu-virtualprocessor.aspx?wa=wsignin1.0

P. Braham, B. Dragovic, K. Fraser, S. Hand, T. Harris, A. Ho, R. Neugebauer, I. Pratt, A. Warfield, "Xen and the art of virtualization", SOSP '03 Proceedings of the nineteenth ACM symposium on Operating systems principles, pp. 164-177, 2003

C. Takemura, L. Crawford, in THE BOOK OF XEN, A Practical Guide for the System Administrator, San Francisco, William Pollock, 2010.

WindowsAdmins, "Introduction of vSphere 5 and its components", 2011, http://winadmins.wordpress.com/page/29/




eISSN: 1792-8036     pISSN: 2241-4487