Study of Gamma-ray Shielding of Two Different Heavy Metals and their Combination for Cs-137 and Co-60 Sources


  • Mohamed E. M. Eisa Department of Physics, Northern Border University, Saudi Arabia | Department of Physics, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Sudan
  • M. D. M. Ali Department of Physics, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Sudan
  • Mustafa J. Abuualreish Department of Chemistry, Northern Border University, Saudi Arabia
Volume: 13 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 10033-10038 | February 2023 |


This article presents data collected by measurements of lead (Pb) and iron (Fe) and their combination as heavy shielding materials. Measurements were performed using gamma photon energies of 662, 1173, and 1332keV for the Cs-137 and Co-60 sources. The theoretical data part was calculated using WinXCom, Phy-X, and Py-MLUBF software packages. Tables and graphs of the photon Mass Attenuation Coefficient (MAC), Linear Attenuation Coefficient (LAC), Half Value Layer (HVL), Tenth Value Layer (TVL) and Mean Free Path (MFP) are presented for both heavy metals and their combination to study the shielding properties experimentally and theoretically. The results will contribute to the ongoing research as a database for future use.


linear attenuation coefficient, photon mass attenuation coefficient, radiation resistance data, heavy metals, gamma photon energies, gamma radiation properties


Download data is not yet available.


M. J. R. AL-Dhuhaibat, "Study of the shielding properties for some composite materials manufactured from polymer epoxy supported by cement, aluminum, iron and lead against gamma rays of the cobalt radioactive source (Co-60)," International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 90–98, 2015.

S. F. Olukotun et al., "Investigation of gamma radiation shielding capability of two clay materials," Nuclear Engineering and Technology, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 957–962, Aug. 2018. DOI:

S. Harb, A. H. El-Kamel, A. Abbady, A. M. Zahran, and F. A. Ahmed, "Natural Radioactivity Measurements of Basalt Rocks in Aden governorate, South of Yemen on Gulf of Aden," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 39–48, Jan. 2014. DOI:

A. M. Abdelmonem, "Gamma rays and thermal neutron attenuation studies of special composite mixes for using in different applications," Radiation Physics and Chemistry, vol. 186, Sep. 2021, Art. no. 109541. DOI:

Y. Elmahroug, B. Tellili, and C. Souga, "Determination of total mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and electron densities for different shielding materials," Annals of Nuclear Energy, vol. 75, pp. 268–274, Jan. 2015. DOI:

U. S. Rajurkar and P. P. Pawar, "Measurement of attenuation coefficient and mean free path of some vitamins in the energy range 0.122-1.330 MeV," Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 852–856, 2016.

N. Nakao et al., "Attenuation length of high energy neutrons through a thick concrete shield measured by activation detectors at CHARM," Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 1022–1034, Sep. 2020. DOI:

N. Ibrahim, "Natural activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K in building materials," Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 255–258, May 1999. DOI:

E. Kavaz, N. Ekinci, H. O. Tekin, M. I. Sayyed, B. Aygun, and U. Perisanoglu, "Estimation of gamma radiation shielding qualification of newly developed glasses by using WinXCOM and MCNPX code," Progress in Nuclear Energy, vol. 115, pp. 12–20, Aug. 2019. DOI:

M. B. Gili and F. Hila, "Investigation of Gamma-ray Shielding Features of Several Clay Materials Using the EPICS2017 Library," Philippine Journal of Science, vol. 150, pp. 1017–1026, Jul. 2021. DOI:

A. M. Madbouly and A. El- Sawy, "Calculation of Gamma and Neutron Parameters for Some Concrete Materials as Radiation Shields for Nuclear Facilities," International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 7–17, Aug. 2018. DOI:

H. Q. Vu, V. H. Tran, P. T. Nguyen, N. T. H. Le, and M. T. Le, "Radiation Shielding Properties Prediction of Barite used as Small Aggregate in Mortar," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 6469–6475, Dec. 2020. DOI:

F. A. Al-Mufadi, A. El-Taher, and G. A. Gamal, "Influence of γ-Irradiation on the Structural Properties of Indium Monoselenide Crystals," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 1264–1268, Dec. 2016. DOI:

M. R. Abdullah, O. K. Alghazawi, and M. Al-Ayyad, "Non-uniform Heat Source and Radiation Effect on a Transient MHD Flow Past a Vertical Moving Plate with Inclined Magnetic Field and Periodic Heat Flux," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 4361–4366, Aug. 2019. DOI:

J. Räisänen, "Experimental arrangements for the simultaneous use of PIXE and complementary accelerator based techniques," Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 39–45, Apr. 1990. DOI:

M. I. Sayyed et al., "Experimental and Theoretical Study of Radiation Shielding Features of CaO-K2O-Na2O-P2O5 Glass Systems," Materials, vol. 14, no. 14, Jan. 2021, Art. no. 3772. DOI:

N. Singh, K. J. Singh, K. Singh, and H. Singh, "Gamma-ray attenuation studies of PbO–BaO–B2O3 glass system," Radiation Measurements, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 84–88, Jan. 2006. DOI:

E. O. Echeweozo, A. D. Asiegbu, and E. L. Efurumibe, "Investigation of kaolin - Granite composite bricks for gamma radiation shielding," International Journal of Advanced Nuclear Reactor Design and Technology, vol. 3, pp. 194–199, Jan. 2021. DOI:

K. Won-In, N. Sirikulrat, and P. Dararutana, "Radiation Shielding Lead-Free Glass Based on Barium-Bearing Glass Using Thailand Quartz Sands," Advanced Materials Research, vol. 214, pp. 207–211, 2011. DOI:

O. Agar, "Investigation on Gamma Radiation Shielding Behaviour of CdO–WO3–TeO2 Glasses from 0.015 to 10 MeV," Cumhuriyet Science Journal, vol. 39, no. 33, pp. 983–990, 2018. DOI:

N. R. Abd Elwahab, N. Helal, T. Mohamed, F. Shahin, and F. M. Ali, "New shielding composite paste for mixed fields of fast neutrons and gamma rays," Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 233, pp. 249–253, May 2019. DOI:

A. Martin, S. Harbison, K. Beach, and P. Cole, An Introduction to Radiation Protection, 7th Ed. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2018. DOI:

K. S. Mann, "Investigation of gamma-ray shielding by double layered enclosures," Radiation Physics and Chemistry, vol. 159, pp. 207–221, Jun. 2019. DOI:

K. S. Mann and S. S. Mann, "Py-MLBUF: Development of an online-platform for gamma-ray shielding calculations and investigations," Annals of Nuclear Energy, vol. 150, Jan. 2021, Art. no. 107845. DOI:

L. Gerward, N. Guilbert, K. B. Jensen, and H. Levring, "WinXCom—a program for calculating X-ray attenuation coefficients," Radiation Physics and Chemistry, vol. 71, pp. 653–654, Oct. 2004. DOI:

M. I. Sayyed, M. Elsafi, A. H. Almuqrin, K. Cornish, and A. M. Elkhatib, "Novel Shielding Mortars for Radiation Source Transportation and Storage," Sustainability, vol. 14, no. 3, Jan. 2022, Art. no. 1248. DOI:

E. Sakar, O. F. Ozpolat, B. Alım, M. I. Sayyed, and M. Kurudirek, "Phy-X / PSD: Development of a user friendly online software for calculation of parameters relevant to radiation shielding and dosimetry," Radiation Physics and Chemistry, vol. 166, Jan. 2020, Art. no. 108496. DOI:

M. S. Eid et al., "Implementation of waste silicate glass into composition of ordinary cement for radiation shielding applications," Nuclear Engineering and Technology, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 1456–1463, Apr. 2022. DOI:

A. El-Sayed Abdo, "Calculation of the cross-sections for fast neutrons and gamma-rays in concrete shields," Annals of Nuclear Energy, vol. 29, no. 16, pp. 1977–1988, Nov. 2002. DOI:

G. ALMisned et al., "Gamma-Ray Protection Properties of Bismuth-Silicate Glasses against Some Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine Radioisotopes: A Comprehensive Study," Materials, vol. 14, no. 21, Jan. 2021, Art. no. 6668. DOI:

A. H. Almuqrin and M. I. Sayyed, "Gamma Ray Shielding Properties of Yb3+-Doped Calcium Borotellurite Glasses," Applied Sciences, vol. 11, no. 12, Jan. 2021, Art. no. 5697. DOI:

M. I. Sayyed, "Half value layer, mean free path and exposure buildup factor for tellurite glasses with different oxide compositions," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 695, pp. 3191–3197, Feb. 2017. DOI:

F. Akman, O. Agar, M. R. Kacal, and M. I. Sayyed, "Comparison of experimental and theoretical radiation shielding parameters of several environmentally friendly materials," Nuclear Science and Techniques, vol. 30, no. 7, Jun. 2019, Art. no. 110. DOI:

R. Singh, S. Singh, G. Singh, and K. S. Thind, "Gamma Radiation Shielding Properties of Steel and Iron Slags," New Journal of Glass and Ceramics, vol. 7, no. 1, 2017, Art. no. 72939. DOI:

A. B. Aziz, Md. F. Rahman, and M. M. Prodhan, "Comparison of Lead, Copper and Aluminium as Gamma Radiation Shielding Material through Experimental Measurements and Simulation Using MCNP Version 4c," International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 20193–20206, Aug. 2018. DOI:


How to Cite

M. E. M. Eisa, M. D. M. Ali, and M. . J. Abuualreish, “Study of Gamma-ray Shielding of Two Different Heavy Metals and their Combination for Cs-137 and Co-60 Sources”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 10033–10038, Feb. 2023.


Abstract Views: 522
PDF Downloads: 409

Metrics Information