Some Mineralogical Characteristics of the Egyptian Black Sand Beach Ilmenite Part IΙ: Rutile-Ilmenite and the Various Titanhematite Grains
Received: 30 August 2022 | Revised: 15 September 2022 | Accepted: 17 September 2022 | Online: 15 December 2022
Corresponding author: M. I. Moustafa
In addition to the grains of homogeneous ilmenite, ferriilmenite, hematite-ilmenite exsolved intergrowths, and the partially altered ilmenite grains, other textures are detected in the separated ilmenite concentrate. The grains of rutile-ilmenite exsolved intergrowth represent 0.8% of the detected ilmenite grains. The ilmenite component of this intergrowth is detected to be ferriilmenite associated with geikielite, pyrophanite, and rutile, with Cr2O3 content ranging between 0 and 0.5%. The exsolved rutile is ferriforrous rutile composed of rutile, hematite, geikielite, and pyrophanite, its Cr2O3 content ranging between 0 and 0.4%. The detected individual titanhematite grains represent 4.4% and include 3 textures arranged, in a decreasing order of abundance, as: ilmenite-hematite, rutile-hematite, and rutile-ilmenite-hematite exsolution intergrowths. MgO and MnO have minimum values and they do not follow Fe2O3. In some homogeneous titanhematite or exsolved rutile-hematite, Fe2O3 content may be replaced with SiO2. In all titanhematite intergrown textures, the Cr2O3 content ranges between 0 and 0.1%. Only in the case of the titanhematite host with exsolved rutile, the contained MgO ranges between 1.2 and 5.3%. Some ferromagnetic titanhematite grains separated with the fraction of magnetite are detected. In these grains, the Cr2O3, MgO, and MnO contents range between 0-0.2, 0-3, and 0-1.4% respectively. Several varieties of chromite and chromspinel mineral grains are found and represent 1.1% of the detected bulk ilmenite grains. In these grains, the Cr2O3, MgO, V2O3, and Al2O3 contents range between 16.69-56.72%, 0.54-17.33%, 0.14-0.58%, and 1.33-38.79% respectively. Although they are rarely met in the ilmenite concentrate, the relatively finer grain sizes could lead to the separation of some with ilmenite fraction rather than with the ferromagnetic one. It is concluded that the problem of high Cr2O3 and Fe2O3 contents of the Egyptian beach ilmenite concentrate is not only a mineralogical problem, but also an ore-dressing one.
Keywords:black sands, beach ilmenite, ferriforous rutile, titanhematite, martitization, exsolved intergrowth
A. A. Mahessar et al., "Sediment Transport Dynamics in the Upper Nara Canal Off-taking from Sukkur Barrage of Indus River," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 6563–6569, Dec. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3924
E. M. Kara, M. Meghachou, and N. Aboubekr, "Contribution of Particles Size Ranges to Sand Friction," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 497–501, Aug. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.361
N. P.H. Padmanabhan, T. Sreenivas, and N. K. Rao, "Processing of Ores of Titanium, Zirconium, Hafnium, Niobium, Tantalum, Molybdenum, Rhenium, and Tungsten: International Trends and the Indian Scene," High Temperature Materials and Processes, vol. 9, no. 2–4, pp. 217–248, Jul. 1990. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/HTMP.1990.9.2-4.217
A. Stwertka, A guide to the elements. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1998.
F. Habashi, Principles of Extractive Metallurgy: Pyrometallurgy. Oxford, UK: Gordon and Breach, 1993.
E. Barbara and S. Hawkins, Eds., "Thorium and Thorium Compounds to Vitamins," in Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, vol. A27, 1996, pp. 95–122.
T. S. Mackey, "Upgrading ilmenite into a high-grade synthetic rutile," JOM, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 59–64, Apr. 1994. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03220676
A.-A. M. Abdel-Karim, S. M. Zaid, M. I. Moustafa, and M. G. Barakat, "Mineralogy, chemistry and radioactivity of the heavy minerals in the black sands, along the northern coast of Egypt," Journal of African Earth Sciences, vol. 123, pp. 10–20, Nov. 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2016.07.005
A.-A. M. Abdel-Karim, M. I. Moustafa, A. H. El-Afandy, and M. G. Barakat, "Mineralogy, Chemical Characteristics and Upgrading of Beach Ilmenite of the Top Meter of Black Sand Deposits of the Kafr Al-Sheikh Governorate, Northern Egypt," Acta Geologica Sinica, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 1326–1338, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1755-6724.13364
A. A. Dewedar, "Comparative studies on the heavy minerals in some black sands deposits from Sinai and east Rosetta with contribution to the mineralogy and economics of their garnets," Ph.D. dissertation, El Menoufia University, Shibin El Kom, Egypt, 1997.
A. A. El-Kammar, A. A. Ragab, and M. I. Moustafa, "Geochemistry of economic heavy minerals from Rosetta black sand of Egypt," Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Earth Sciences, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 69–97, 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4197/ear.22-2.4
N. M. Hammoud, "Concentration of monazite from Egyptian black sands, employing industrial techniques," M.S. thesis, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, 1966.
N. M. S. Hammoud, "A process for recovery of low chromium high grade ilmenite from north Egyptian beach deposits," in Proceedings, 11th Indust. Mineral Process Conference, Sardegna, Italy, 1975.
M. A. Mikhail, "Distribution and sedimentation of ilmenite in black sands, west of Rosetta," M.S. thesis, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt, 1971.
M. I. Moustafa, "Mineralogy and beneficiation of some economic minerals in the Egyptian black sands," Ph.D. dissertation, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt, 1999.
R. M. Tyler and R. C. A. Minnitt, "A review of sub-Saharan heavy mineral sand deposits : implications for new projects in southern Africa," Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, vol. 104, no. 2, pp. 89–99, Mar. 2004.
M. A. Mandour, T. Chernet, and M. I. Moustafa, "Applied mineralogical studies on Egyptian sand ilmenite concentrates," in Seventh Biennial Sgs Meeting on Mineral Exploration and Sustainable Development, Athens, Greece, 2003, pp. 903–906.
M. F. R. Fouda, R. S. Amin, H. I. Saleh, A. A. Labib, and H. A. Mousa, "Preparation and characterization of nanosized Titania prepared from beach black sands broad on Mediterranean Sea Coast in Egypt Via reaction with acids," Australian Journal of Basic Applied Sciences, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 4540–4553, 2010.
N. A. El-Hussiny, T. A. Lasheen, and M. E. H. Shalabi, "Kinetic reduction of Rosetta ilmenite with coke Breeze and Beneficiation of the product," The Journal of ORE DRESSING, vol. 10, no. 20, pp. 16–23, Jan. 2008.
M. I. Moustafa, M. A. Tashkandi, and A. M. El-Sherif, "Detecting Mineral Resources and Suggesting a Physical Concentration Flowsheet for Economic Minerals at the Northern Border Region of Saudi Arabia," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 8617–8627, Jun. 2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.4894
M. I. Moustafa, "Some Mineralogical Characteristics of the Egyptian Black Sand Beach Ilmenite: Homogeneous Ilmenite and Titanhematite-Ferrilmenite Grains-Part I," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 9614-9631, Dec. 2022.
E. F. Stumpfl, "Erzmikroskopische untersuchungen an schwermineralien in sanden," Geol.Jarb, vol. 73, pp. 685–723, 1958.
E. Z. Basta and M. A. Takla, "Mineralogy and Origin of Abu Ghalaga Ilmenite Occurrence, Eastern Desert," Journal of Geology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 87–124, 1968.
N. K. Rao and G. V. U. Rao, "Intergrowths in ilmenite of the beach sands of Kerala," Mineralogical magazine and journal of the Mineralogical Society, vol. 35, no. 269, pp. 118–130, Mar. 1965. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1180/minmag.1965.035.269.14
E. Z. Basta, "New Data on the System Fe2O3- FeTiO3-TiO2 (Ferri-Ilmenite and Titanom-agetite)," Proceeding Egyptian Academic Science, vol. 14, pp. 1–15, 1959.
P. Ramdohr, Die Erzmineralien in gewohnlichen magmatischen Gesteinen. Berlin, Germany: Verlag der Wissenschaften, 1940.
J. R. Balsley and A. F. Buddington, "Iron-titanium oxide minerals, rocks, and aeromagnetic anomalies of the Adirondack area, New York," Economic Geology, vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 777–805, Nov. 1958. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.53.7.777
W. Uytenbogaardt, Tables for microscopic identification of ore minerals, Second Edition. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 1971.
S. E. Haggerty, "Oxide textures; a mini-atlas," Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 129–219, Jan. 1991. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9781501508684-008
P. Ramdohr, The Ore Minerals and Their Intergrowths. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press, 1980.
A. B. Edwards, Textures of the ore minerals and their significance. Melbourne, VIC, Australia: Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 1947.
P. Ramdohr, Die Beziehungen von Fe-Ti-Erzen aus magmatischen Gesteinen. Valtioneuvoston kirjapaino, 1956.
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 441
PDF Downloads: 411
Copyright (c) 2022 M. I. Moustafa
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.