Prediction of the Stress Wave Amplification Factor of a Spherical Blast Source Using Numerical Simulations


  • J. U. Rehman Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, South Korea
  • C. N. Nguyen Faculty of Construction, Vinh University, Vietnam
  • T. A. Nguyen Department of Civil Engineering, Vinh University, Vietnam
  • T. C. Vo Faculty of Construction, Vinh University, Vietnam
  • T. K. Nguyen Department of Civil Engineering, Vinh University, Vietnam
  • V. Q. Nguyen Department of Civil Engineering, Vinh University, Vietnam
Volume: 12 | Issue: 5 | Pages: 9395-9399 | October 2022 |


A typical blast wave attenuation curve presents a relationship between Peak Particle Velocity (PPV) at the surface of a geologic profile and distance. As the stress wave is amplified at the free-field boundary, the attenuation curve at the surface is always larger than the within media profile curve. Measurements are made at the rock's surface and test blasts are always conducted to ensure the safety of underground existing structures. In order to design underground blasting, the recorded PPVs are then reduced by a factor of 2. In this paper, particle velocity amplification was studied by using numerical simulation, and the difference between PPV at the surface and within media profiles is quantified. The amplification factor depends upon source depth, incidence angle, and Poisson’s ratio of the media. It is calculated as the ratio of the magnitude of PPV at the surface of the media to the within media profile. According to the parametric study, the amplification factor for a uniform medium increases with increasing source depth, while the amplification factor decreases with increasing Poisson’s ratio. Considering a three-layer model with a source depth of 30m, the amplification factor is high for low incident angles and low for higher incident angles. The range varies between 1.5 to 2.1.


free surface, numerical simulation, underground blasting, wave amplification, wave attenuation


Download data is not yet available.


I. A. Onederra, J. K. Furtney, E. Sellers, and S. Iverson, "Modelling blast induced damage from a fully coupled explosive charge," International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol. 58, pp. 73–84, Feb. 2013. DOI:

L. Malmgren, D. Saiang, J. Töyrä, and A. Bodare, "The excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) at Kiirunavaara mine, Sweden—by seismic measurements," Journal of Applied Geophysics, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 1–15, Jan. 2007. DOI:

D. Saiang and E. Nordlund, "Numerical Analyses of the Influence of Blast-Induced Damaged Rock Around Shallow Tunnels in Brittle Rock," Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 421–448, Jun. 2009. DOI:

J.-H. Shin, H.-G. Moon, and S.-E. Chae, "Effect of blast-induced vibration on existing tunnels in soft rocks," Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 51–61, Jan. 2011. DOI:

P. Pal Roy, "Vibration control in an opencast mine based on improved blast vibration predictors," Mining Science and Technology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 157–165, Mar. 1991. DOI:

W. I. Duvall and D. E. Fogelson, RI 5968 Review of Criteria for Estimating Damage to Residences from Blasting Vibrations ? Summary and Conclusions. Washington DC, USA: United Stated Department of the Interior, 1962.

D. J. Armaghani, M. Hajihassani, E. T. Mohamad, A. Marto, and S. A. Noorani, "Blasting-induced flyrock and ground vibration prediction through an expert artificial neural network based on particle swarm optimization," Arabian Journal of Geosciences, vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 5383–5396, Dec. 2014. DOI:

D. J. Armaghani, E. Momeni, S. V. A. N. K. Abad, and M. Khandelwal, "Feasibility of ANFIS model for prediction of ground vibrations resulting from quarry blasting," Environmental Earth Sciences, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 2845–2860, Aug. 2015. DOI:

M. Aaqib, D. Park, M. B. Adeel, Y. M. A. Hashash, and O. Ilhan, "Simulation-based site amplification model for shallow bedrock sites in Korea," Earthquake Spectra, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 1900–1930, Aug. 2021. DOI:

M. Aaqib, D. Park, Y.-G. Lee, and U. Pervaiz, "Development of Site Classification System and Seismic Site Coefficients for Korea," Journal of Earthquake Engineering, Oct. 2021. DOI:

Y. Lee, H.-S. Kim, M. I. Khalid, Y. Lee, and D. Park, "Effect of Nonlinear Soil Model on Seismic Response of Slopes Composed of Granular Soil," Advances in Civil Engineering, vol. 2020, Nov. 2020, Art. no. e8890247. DOI:

T. Nagao, "Seismic Amplification by Deep Subsurface and Proposal of a New Proxy," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 5157–5163, Feb. 2020. DOI:

T. Nagao, "Maximum Credible Earthquake Ground Motions with Focus on Site Amplification due to Deep Subsurface," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 6873–6881, Apr. 2021. DOI:

T. Nagao, "Variation Evaluation of Path Characteristic and Site Amplification Factor of Earthquake Ground Motion at Four Sites in Central Japan," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 7658–7664, Oct. 2021. DOI:

"FLAC (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua) Version 220," Itasca Consulting Group, Inc., Minneapolis, MN (USA)) Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (USA), Report NUREG/CR--5430-VOL.3, 1989.

J. Lysmer and R. L. Kuhlemeyer, "Finite Dynamic Model for Infinite Media," Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 859–877, Aug. 1969. DOI:

J. Jiang, D. P. Blair, and G. R. Baird, "Dynamic response of an elastic and viscoelastic full-space to a spherical source," International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 181–193, 1995. DOI:

J.-K. Ahn and D. Park, "Prediction of Near-Field Wave Attenuation Due to a Spherical Blast Source," Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, vol. 50, no. 11, pp. 3085–3099, Nov. 2017. DOI:

J.-K. Ahn, D. Park, and J.-K. Yoo, "Estimation of damping ratio of rock mass for numerical simulation of blast induced vibration propagation," Japanese Geotechnical Society Special Publication, vol. 2, no. 45, pp. 1589–1592, 2016. DOI:

P. Zhang, E. Nordlund, G. Swan, and C. Yi, "Velocity Amplification of Seismic Waves Through Parallel Fractures Near a Free Surface in Fractured Rock: A Theoretical Study," Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 199–213, Jan. 2019. DOI:


How to Cite

J. U. Rehman, C. N. Nguyen, T. A. Nguyen, T. C. Vo, T. K. Nguyen, and V. Q. Nguyen, “Prediction of the Stress Wave Amplification Factor of a Spherical Blast Source Using Numerical Simulations”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 9395–9399, Oct. 2022.


Abstract Views: 357
PDF Downloads: 168

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share

Most read articles by the same author(s)