A Parametric Study of Fire-Damaged Reinforced Concrete Columns under Lateral Loads
Received: 2 July 2022 | Revised: 17 July 2022 | Accepted: 21 July 2022 | Online: 28 July 2022
Corresponding author: M. Baghdadi
Columns are the structural members of buildings that ensure structural stability. A fire can severely affect the columns' structural performance by degrading the properties of their constituent materials, thereby reducing the strength capacity, stiffness, and stability. In seismic zones, the knowledge of the post-fire behavior of these elements is a fundamental requirement for a realistic seismic performance assessment. This study utilized numerical analysis using the parametric fire model of Eurocode-1 to estimate the post-fire axial and lateral performance of reinforced concrete columns. In the first step, the axial load-bearing capacity was evaluated from a parametric study for cantilever columns. In the second step, the lateral load capacity, force-displacement behavior, stiffness, ductility, energy dissipation capacity, and residual displacements were estimated to determine the impact of fire damage on the behavior of columns under lateral loads. The results showed that both the lateral load capacity and the ductility of the reinforced concrete columns decreased significantly due to fire exposure. This also indicated that fire damage decreases the vertical load-bearing capacity, and the reduction in lateral capacity was attributed to the loss of concrete's compressive strength. The column characteristics that significantly influence the residual response behavior were identified as section size, column height, axial load ratio, and concrete's compressive strength.
Keywords:natural fire, columns, post-fire behavior, fire -damage, residual strength, lateral load capacity
A. S. Usmani, "Research Priorities for Maintaining Structrural Fire Resistance after Seismic Damage," presented at the 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China, Oct. 2008.
D. Qin, P. Gao, F. Aslam, M. Sufian, and H. Alabduljabbar, "A comprehensive review on fire damage assessment of reinforced concrete structures," Case Studies in Construction Materials, vol. 16, Jun. 2022, Art. no. e00843. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cscm.2021.e00843
A. Agrawal and V. K. R. Kodur, "A Novel Experimental Approach for Evaluating Residual Capacity of Fire Damaged Concrete Members," Fire Technology, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 715–735, Mar. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10694-019-00900-1
J. Wróblewska and R. Kowalski, "Assessing concrete strength in fire-damaged structures," Construction and Building Materials, vol. 254, Sep. 2020, Art. no. 119122. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.119122
R. Felicetti and P. G. Gambarova, "The Effects of High Temperature on the Residual Compressive Strength of High-Strength Siliceous Concretes," Materials Journal, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 395–406, Jul. 1998. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14359/382
J. Lee, Y. Xi, and K. Willam, "Properties of Concrete after High-Temperature Heating and Cooling," Materials Journal, vol. 105, no. 4, pp. 334–341, Jul. 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14359/19894
Y. N. Chan, G. F. Peng, and M. Anson, "Residual strength and pore structure of high-strength concrete and normal strength concrete after exposure to high temperatures," Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 23–27, Jan. 1999. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0958-9465(98)00034-1
A. Nassif, "Postfire full stress–strain response of fire-damaged concrete," Fire and Materials, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 323–332, 2006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/fam.911
Y. F. Chang, Y. H. Chen, M. S. Sheu, and G. C. Yao, "Residual stress–strain relationship for concrete after exposure to high temperatures," Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 1999–2005, Oct. 2006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2006.05.029
M. Salah Dimia, M. Guenfoud, T. Gernay, and J.-M. Franssen, "Collapse of concrete columns during and after the cooling phase of a fire," Journal of Fire Protection Engineering, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 245–263, Nov. 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1042391511423451
T. Gernay and M. Salah Dimia, "Structural behaviour of concrete columns under natural fires," Engineering Computations, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 854–872, Jan. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/EC-05-2012-0103
T. T. Lie, J. L. Woollerton, and Institut de recherche en construction (Canada), Fire resistance of reinforced concrete columns, test results. Ottawa, Canada: National Research Council of Canada, Institute for Research in Construction, 1988.
Y.-H. Chen, Y. F. Chang, G. C. Yao, and M.-S. Sheu, "Experimental research on post-fire behaviour of reinforced concrete columns," Fire Safety Journal, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 741–748, Jul. 2009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2009.02.004
P. C. Nguyen, D. D. Pham, T. T. Tran, and T. Nghia-Nguyen, "Modified Numerical Modeling of Axially Loaded Concrete-Filled Steel Circular-Tube Columns," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 7094–7099, Jun. 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.4157
A. S. Ali and H. A. Al-Baghdadi, "Behavior of RC Beams Strengthened with NSM-CFRP Strips Exposure to Fire," IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, vol. 856, no. 1, Jun. 2021, Art. no. 012035. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/856/1/012035
H. M. Hekmet and A. F. Izzet, "Numerical Analysis of Segmental Post Tensioned Concrete Beams Exposed to High Fire Temperature," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 4759–4768, Oct. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3059
L. Ping, X. Jing, B. Othman, F. Yuefei, Z. B. A. Kadir, and X. Ping, "An Intercultural Management Perspective of Foreign Student’s Adaptation in Chinese Universities: A Case Study of China Three Gorges University," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 3971–3977, Apr. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2589
X. Jianzhuang and X. Meng, "An experimental study on the seismic behavior of HPC frames after fire," China Civil Engineering, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 36–42, 2005.
X. Liu, T. Gernay, L. Li, and Z. Lu, "Seismic performance of post-fire reinforced concrete beam-column joints strengthened with steel haunch system," Engineering Structures, vol. 234, May 2021, Art. no. 111978. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2021.111978
M. Moradi, H. Tavakoli, and G. AbdollahZade, "Sensitivity analysis of the failure time of reinforcement concrete frame under postearthquake fire loading," Structural Concrete, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 625–641, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/suco.201900165
H. Mostafaei and T. Kabeyasawa, "Performance of a six-story Reinforced Concrete Structures in Post-Earthquake Fire," in Proceedings of the 9th U.S. National and 10th Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Toronto, Canada, Jul. 2010, Art. No. 659.
C. T. N. Tran and B. Li, "Seismic performance of RC short columns with light transverse reinforcement," Structural Engineering and Mechanics, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 93–104, 2018.
Y. Hu, M. Maeda, Y. Suzuki, and K. Jin, "Seismic performance of exterior R/C beam-column joint under varying axial force," Structural Engineering and Mechanics, vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 623–635, 2021.
J. Zh. Xiao, J. Li, and F. Jiang, "Research on the seismic behavior of HPC shear walls after fire," Materials and Structures, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 506–512, Oct. 2004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02481574
G. R. Liu, "Experimental study on fire resistance and post-fire seismic behavior of concrete shear wall," Ph.D. dissertation, Dalian University of Technology, 2010.
S. Ni and A. C. Birely, "Post-fire seismic behavior of reinforced concrete structural walls," Engineering Structures, vol. 168, pp. 163–178, Aug. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.04.018
M. Baghdadi, M. S. Dimia, M. Guenfoud, and A. Bouchair, "An experimental and numerical analysis of concrete walls exposed to fire," Structural Engineering and Mechanics, vol. 77, no. 6, pp. 819–830, Jan. 2021.
A. Ilki and U. Demir, "Factors Affecting the Seismic Behavior of Reinforced Concrete," NED University Journal of Research - Special Issue on First South Asia Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Feb. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.35453/NEDJR-STMECH-2019-0003
U. Demir, M. F. Green, and A. Ilki, "Postfire seismic performance of reinforced precast concrete columns," PCI Journal, pp. 62–80, Nov. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15554/pcij65.6-01
C. G. Bailey and M. Yaqub, "Seismic strengthening of shear critical post-heated circular concrete columns wrapped with FRP composite jackets," Composite Structures, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 851–864, Feb. 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2011.09.004
N. Benichou, H. Mostafaei, M. F. Green, and K. Hollingshead, "The impact of fire on seismic resistance of fibre reinforced polymer strengthened concrete structural systems," Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 1044–1050, Nov. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1139/cjce-2012-0521
H. Mostafaei and J. K. Hum, "Response Simulation of Reinforced Concrete Columns Under Lateral Loads," National Research Council of Canada, Feb. 2010. https://doi.org/10.4224/20375047.
H. Mostafaei, F. J. Vecchio, and N. Bénichou, "Seismic Resistance of Fire-Damaged Reinforced Concrete Columns," in Improving the Seismic Performance of Existing Buildings and Other Structures, San Francisco, California, United States, Dec. 2009, pp. 1396–1407. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/41084(364)128
J.-M. Franssen and T. Gernay, "Modeling structures in fire with SAFIR®: theoretical background and capabilities," Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 300–323, Jan. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JSFE-07-2016-0010
Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures: Part 1.2 General Actions : Actions on Structures Exposed to Fire. London, UK: BSI, 2002.
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 663
PDF Downloads: 345
Copyright (c) 2022 M. Baghdadi, M. S. Dimia, D. Baghdadi
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.