Investigation of Polycaprolactone/Carboxymethyl Cellulose Scaffolds by Mechanical and Thermal Analysis


  • N. Sriputtha Department of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Pathumwan Institute of Technology, Thailand
  • F. Wiwatwongwana Department of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Pathumwan Institute of Technology, Thailand
  • N. Promma Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Thailand
Volume: 12 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 8175-8179 | February 2022 |


The objective of this work was to learn more about three-dimensional porous scaffolds made from biomaterial based on polycaprolactone (PCL) containing different amounts of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) nanoparticles. Composite material samples containing 0, 2, 6.5, 11, 15.5, and 20% w/w of CMC and PCL/CMC scaffolds were prepared with the use of the salt particle leached technique. The mechanical properties were evaluated with the compressive strength analysis method. The studied temperature range started at very low temperatures and ended at crosslinking temperatures. It was evaluated using the thermal analysis methods of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) in the range 0ºC-200ºC. The results revealed that the compressive modulus of blended PCL/CMC scaffold was higher than the one of pure PCL scaffold (582.2±106.2 kPa for pure PCL scaffold and 612.2±296 kPa for blended scaffold which contained 20% of CMC). For DSC analysis, in addition to the 15.5% w/w CMC PCL/CMC composite scaffold, other proportions of composite materials showed a decrease in crystallization temperature. The crystallinity of PCL-20% CMC was higher than that of PCL scaffolds.


polycaprolactone, carboxymethyl cellulose, compressive strength, thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry


Download data is not yet available.


N. U. Kang, M. W. Hong, Y. Y. Kim, Y. S. Cho, and S. J. Lee, "Development of a Powder Extruder System for Dual-pore Tissue-engineering Scaffold Fabrication," Journal of Bionic Engineering, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 686–695, Jul. 2019. DOI:

M. E. Alemán-Domínguez, E. Giusto, Z. Ortega, M. Tamaddon, A. N. Benítez, and C. Liu, "Three-dimensional printed polycaprolactone-microcrystalline cellulose scaffolds," Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 521–528, 2019. DOI:

Y. L. Qiu et al., "Characterization of different biodegradable scaffolds in tissue engineering," Molecular Medicine Reports, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 4043–4056, May 2019. DOI:

Z. Yang, X. Li, J. Si, Z. Cui, and K. Peng, "Morphological, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/Cellulose Nanofibrils (CNF) Composites Nanofiber for Tissue Engineering," Journal Wuhan University of Technology, Materials Science Edition, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 207–215, 2019. DOI:

Z. Y. Ilerisoy and Y. Takva, "Nanotechnological Developments in Structural Design: Load-Bearing Materials," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 1900–1903, 2017. DOI:

S. Pina et al., "Scaffolding Strategies for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Applications," Materials, vol. 12, no. 11, p. 1824, 2019. DOI:

F. Tondnevis, M. Ketabi, R. Fekrazad, A. Sadeghi, and M. M. Abolhasani, "Using chitosan besides nano hydroxyapatite and fluorohydroxyapatite boost dental pulp stem cell proliferation," Journal of Biomimetics, Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, vol. 42, pp. 39–50, 2019. DOI:

M. F. Abdelkarim, L. S. Nasrat, S. M. Elkhodary, A. M. Soliman, A. M. Hassan, and S. H. Mansour, "Volume Resistivity and Mechanical Behavior of Epoxy Nanocomposite Materials," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 775–780, 2015. DOI:

A. Eltom, G. Zhong, and A. Muhammad, "Scaffold Techniques and Designs in Tissue Engineering Functions and Purposes: A Review," Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 2019, 2019, Art. no. 3429527. DOI:

E. Sabzi, F. Abbasi, and H. Ghaleh, "Interconnected porous nanofibrous gelatin scaffolds prepared via a combined thermally induced phase separation/particulate leaching method," Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 488–503, 2020. DOI:

M. Bazgir et al., "Degradation and Characterisation of Electrospun Polycaprolactone (PCL) and Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) Scaffolds for Vascular Tissue Engineering Morteza," Materials, vol. 14, no. 15, 2021, Art. no. 4773. DOI:

L. Siad et al., "FEA Based on 3D Micro-CT Images of Mesoporous Engineered Hydrogels," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 885–890, 2015. DOI:

J. L. Walker and M. Santoro, "Processing and production of bioresorbable polymer scaffolds for tissue engineering," in Bioresorbable Polymers for Biomedical Applications: From Fundamentals to Translational Medicine, Amsterdam, Neatherlands: Elsevier Ltd, 2017, pp. 181–203. DOI:

Y. S. Cho, S. J. Gwak, and Y. S. Cho, "Fabrication of polycaprolactone/nano hydroxyapatite (Pcl/nha) 3d scaffold with enhanced in vitro cell response via design for additive manufacturing (dfam)," Polymers, vol. 13, no. 9, May 2021, Art. no. 1394. DOI:

Y. Morpara and F. Wiwatwongwana, "Characterization of gelatin/cmc scaffold fabricated by using salt leaching technique," in Materials Science Forum, 2019, vol. 962, pp. 129–136. DOI:

K. Zhang et al., "Fabrication of highly interconnected porous poly(ɛ-caprolactone) scaffolds with supercritical CO2 foaming and polymer leaching," Journal of Materials Science, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 5112–5126, Mar. 2019. DOI:

A. Haider et al., "Advances in the scaffolds fabrication techniques using biocompatible polymers and their biomedical application: A technical and statistical review," Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 186–215, 2020. DOI:

A. Sola et al., "Development of solvent-casting particulate leaching (SCPL) polymer scaffolds as improved three-dimensional supports to mimic the bone marrow niche," Materials Science and Engineering C, vol. 96, pp. 153–165, Mar. 2019. DOI:

M. Roshandel and F. Dorkoosh, "Cardiac tissue engineering, biomaterial scaffolds, and their fabrication techniques," Polymers for Advanced Technologies, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 2290–2305, 2021. DOI:

L. Sardelli, D. P. Pacheco, L. Zorzetto, C. Rinoldi, W. Święszkowski, and P. Petrini, "Engineering biological gradients," Journal of Applied Biomaterials and Functional Materials, vol. 17, no. 1, 2019. DOI:

M. E. Alemán-Domínguez, Z. Ortega, A. N. Benítez, G. Vilariño-Feltrer, J. A. Gómez-Tejedor, and A. Vallés-Lluch, "Tunability of polycaprolactone hydrophilicity by carboxymethyl cellulose loading," Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 135, no. 14, Apr. 2018. DOI:

R. Dwivedi et al., "Polycaprolactone as biomaterial for bone scaffolds: Review of literature," Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 381–388, 2020. DOI:

S. Kashte, G. Arbade, R. K. Sharma, and S. Kadam, "Herbally Painted Biofunctional Scaffolds with Improved Osteoinductivity for Bone Tissue Engineering," Journal of Biomimetics, Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, vol. 41, pp. 49–68, 2019. DOI:

B. Aaliya, K. V. Sunooj, and M. Lackner, "Biopolymer composites: a review," International Journal of Biobased Plastics, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 40–84, 2021. DOI:

C. G. Simon, "Scaffold Fabrication Tutorial: Salt‐Leaching & Gas Foamed Scaffolds," [Online]. Available:

K. R. Coogan, P. T. Stone, N. D. Sempertegui, and S. S. Rao, "Fabrication of micro-porous hyaluronic acid hydrogels through salt leaching," European Polymer Journal, vol. 135, 2020, Art. no. 109870. DOI:

N. Sriputtha, F. Wiwatwongwana, and N. Promma, “Fabrication of Porous Polycaprolactone/Carboxymethylcellulose Scaffolds by using Salt Leaching Technique,” Journal of Wuhan University of Technology-Materials Science Edtion, 2022, (in press).

P. Balaji, A. Murugadas, S. Shanmugaapriya, and M. Abdulkader Akbarsha, "Fabrication and characterization of egg white cryogel scaffold for three-dimensional (3D) cell culture," Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, vol. 17, pp. 441–446, 2019. DOI:

Y. Gong et al., "Experimental investigation and optimal 3D bioprinting parameters of sa-gel porous cartilage scaffold," Applied Sciences (Switzerland), vol. 10, no. 3, 2020, Art. no. 768. DOI:

C. H. Cheng, Y. W. Chen, A. Kai-Xing Lee, C. H. Yao, and M. Y. Shie, "Development of mussel-inspired 3D-printed poly (lactic acid) scaffold grafted with bone morphogenetic protein-2 for stimulating osteogenesis," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, vol. 30, no. 7, 2019, Art. no. 78. DOI:

M. E. Alemán-Domínguez et al., "Polycaprolactone–carboxymethyl cellulose composites for manufacturing porous scaffolds by material extrusion," Bio-Design and Manufacturing, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 245–253, Dec. 2018. DOI:

Y. Zamani et al., "3D-printed poly(Ɛ-caprolactone) scaffold with gradient mechanical properties according to force distribution in the mandible for mandibular bone tissue engineering," Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, vol. 104, 2019, Art. no. 103638, 2020. DOI:

Q. Wang, Z. Ma, Y. Wang, L. Zhong, and W. Xie, "Fabrication and characterization of 3D printed biocomposite scaffolds based on PCL and zirconia nanoparticles," Bio-Design and Manufacturing, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 60–71, 2021. DOI:

W. Wang, B. Huang, J. J. Byun, and P. Bártolo, "Assessment of PCL/carbon material scaffolds for bone regeneration," Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, vol. 93, pp. 52–60, 2019. DOI:

Z. Jiao, B. Luo, S. Xiang, H. Ma, Y. Yu, and W. Yang, "3D printing of HA / PCL composite tissue engineering scaffolds," Advanced Industrial and Engineering Polymer Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 196–202, Oct. 2019. DOI:

J. Si, J. Lin, Z. Zheng, Z. Cui, and Q. Wang, "Fabrication and Characterization of 3D Graded PDMS Scaffolds Using Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Moulding," Journal Wuhan University of Technology, Materials Science Edition, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 1263–1270, 2018. DOI:

C. B. B. Luna, D. D. Siqueira, E. da S. B. Ferreira, E. M. Araújo, and R. M. R. Wellen, "Effect of injection parameters on the thermal, mechanical and thermomechanical properties of polycaprolactone (PCL)," Journal of Elastomers and Plastics, vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 1045-1062, 2021. DOI:

E. Díaz, J. Aresti, and J. León, "Evaluation of physicochemical and mechanical properties with the in vitro degradation of PCL/nHA/MWCNT composite scaffolds," Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, vol. 40, no. 3–4, pp. 134–142, 2021. DOI:


How to Cite

N. Sriputtha, F. Wiwatwongwana, and N. Promma, “Investigation of Polycaprolactone/Carboxymethyl Cellulose Scaffolds by Mechanical and Thermal Analysis”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 8175–8179, Feb. 2022.


Abstract Views: 255
PDF Downloads: 203

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share