An Inclusive Study on the Effect of Strain Rate on the Stress-Strain Behavior and the Undrained Shear Strength of Clay Soils in Kombolcha, Ethiopia
Received: 15 November 2021 | Revised: 2 December 2021 | Accepted: 7 December 2021 | Online: 31 December 2021
This research aims to study the effect of strain rate on the stress-strain association and shear strength of clay soils in Kombolcha, Ethiopia. Field and laboratory experimentations were conducted on 3 soil samples collected at 4.5m depth, considering the physical and engineering properties of the soil. Unconsolidated, undrained triaxial compression tests were performed under confining pressure on the specimens that were axially loaded at a rate of strain varying from 0.38mm/min to 1.14mm/min by taking 2 points above and below 1% of the specimen height. Stress-strain relations were developed under the stated different rates of strains to describe their effect. It was revealed that the strain rate effect was observed. By increasing the strain rate shifts the stress-strain curve upward, and the corresponding shear strength of the soil also increased under effective stress. Accordingly, the strain rate increased the shear parameters. The average angle of friction increased by 13.43%, 15.08%, 13.18%, and 14.33% when the rate of strain changed from 0.38 to 0.57mm/min, 0.57 to 0.76mm/min, 0.76 to 0.95mm/min, and 0.95 to 1.14mm/min respectively, while the average cohesion increased by 17.67%, 19.52%, 14.87%, and 16.48%. The failure at strain rate 1%/min of sample height (0.76mm/min) was uniformly distributed and there was uniform pore pressure distribution throughout the sample height. The effect is slightly more when the shear strength increased at the left side than at the right side. Average shear strength parameters such as cohesion and angle friction were recorded for strain rates from 0.57mm/min to 1.25mm/min specifically for the clay soils found in Kombolcha town, Ethiopia.
Keywords:inclusive study, rate, strain, shear, soil
Y. Wang, J. Li, Q. Jiang, Y. Huang, and X. Li, "Experimental Study on Variation Law and Mechanism of Soil Shear Strength Parameters along the Slope," Advances in Civil Engineering, vol. 2019, Aug. 2019, Art. no. e3586054. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3586054
L. Sun, "Strain Accumulation in Soft Marine Clay due to One-Way Cyclic Load with Variable Confining Pressure," Advances in Civil Engineering, vol. 2021, Apr. 2021, Art. no. e6624270. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6624270
Z. Zhu, C. Zhang, J. Wang, P. Zhang, and D. Zhu, "Cyclic Loading Test for the Small-Strain Shear Modulus of Saturated Soft Clay and Its Failure Mechanism," Geofluids, vol. 2021, Jun. 2021, Art. no. e2083682. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/2083682
K. Adugna and Y. Yirga, "Investigation on Engineering Characteristics of Soils. A Case Study in Wolkite University Compound, Ethiopia," Journal of Civil Engineering Research, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 39–46, 2020.
S. Shimobe and G. Spagnoli, "Some generic trends on the basic engineering properties of fine-grained soils," Environmental Earth Sciences, vol. 78, no. 9, Apr. 2019, Art. no. 281. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-019-8266-4
S. A. Ngah and H. O. Nwankwoala, "Evaluation of Geotechnical Properties of the Subsoil for Shallow Foundation Design in Onne, Rivers State, Nigeria," The International Journal Of Engineering And Science, vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 8–16, Jan. 2013.
J.-S. L’Heureux and T. Lunne, "Characterization and Engineering properties of Natural Soils used for Geotesting," AIMS Geosciences, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 35–53, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3934/geosci.2020004
S. Roy and S. K. Bhalla, "Role of Geotechnical Properties of Soil on Civil Engineering Structures," Resources and Environment, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 103–109, Jan. 2017.
C. Huang, X. Wang, H. Zhou, and Y. Liang, "Factors Affecting the Swelling-Compression Characteristics of Clays in Yichang, China," Advances in Civil Engineering, vol. 2019, Feb. 2019, Art. no. e6568208. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/6568208
W. Mun, T. Teixeira, M. C. Balci, J. Svoboda, and J. S. McCartney, "Rate effects on the undrained shear strength of compacted clay," Soils and Foundations, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 719–731, Aug. 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sandf.2016.07.012
S. Robinson and M. J. Brown, "Rate effects at varying strain levels in fine grained soils," in 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris, France, Sep. 2013, vol. 1, pp. 263–266.
I. B. Gratchev and K. Sassa, "Shear Strength of Clay at Different Shear Rates," Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 141, no. 5, May 2015, Art. no. 06015002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0001297
L. Ma, J. Qi, F. Yu, and X. Yao, "Experimental study on variability in mechanical properties of a frozen sand as determined in triaxial compression tests," Acta Geotechnica, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 61–70, Feb. 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11440-015-0391-y
G. Huang, J. Zhou, and X. Gong, "Stress-strain and shear strength properties of rock and soil materials of waste pile in open pit mines," Journal-Zhejiang University Engineering Science, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 54–59, 2000.
W. Cho and R. J. Finno, "Stress-Strain Responses of Block Samples of Compressible Chicago Glacial Clays," Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 136, no. 1, pp. 178–188, Jan. 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0000186
L. C. Lollo, "Geotechnical Evaluation of Foundation Soils for a Building (Case Study of a Site in Jimma City, Southwestern Ethiopia)," Journal of Environment and Earth Science, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 95–98, 2016.
A. Shrestha, A. Jotisankasa, S. Chaiprakaikeow, S. Pramusandi, S. Soralump, and S. Nishimura, "Determining Shrinkage Cracks Based on the Small-Strain Shear Modulus–Suction Relationship," Geosciences, vol. 9, no. 9, Sep. 2019, Art. no. 362. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9090362
S. Fekadu, "Shear Strength and Consolidation Characteristics of Lateritic Soils: A Case of Asela Town, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia," International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 21–28, Mar. 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijema.20210901.13
M. A. Adigun, K. A. Olatunji, F. O. Alaboru, and A. B. Ogunbajo, "Evaluation of Sub-Soil Geotechnical Properties for Shallow Foundation and Pavement Design in LASPOTECH, Ikorodu Campus, Lagos State, Nigeria," IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 40–47, Dec. 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.9790/1684-11644047
J. Z. Zhang, L. C. Miao, and H. J. Wang, "Methods for characterizing variability of soil parameters," Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 1936–1940, 2009.
A. Teklay, M. Haile, A. Teferra, and E. J. Murray, "The effect of sample preparation and testing procedure on the geotechnical properties of tropically weathered residual laterite soils of Ethiopia," Zede Journal, vol. 33, pp. 45–62, 2015.
C. M. Chan and H. Y. Yong, "Comparing the Thixotropic and Lightly Solidified Hardening Behavior of a Dredged Marine Clay," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 706–710, Oct. 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.494
M. Mohammadi, M. Shabanpour, M. H. Mohammadi, and N. Davatgar, "Characterizing Spatial Variability of Soil Textural Fractions and Fractal Parameters Derived from Particle Size Distributions," Pedosphere, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 224–234, Apr. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(17)60425-9
F. Luo, Q. Luo, L. Jiang, Y. Lyu, and D. Kong, "Influence of variation levels of soil strength indexes on the value of slope stability safety factor," vol. 37, pp. 77–83, Aug. 2015.
J. James and P. K. Pandian, "Plasticity, Swell-Shrink, and Microstructure of Phosphogypsum Admixed Lime Stabilized Expansive Soil," Advances in Civil Engineering, vol. 2016, Jul. 2016, Art. no. e9798456. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/9798456
H. Sellaf, H. Trouzine, M. Hamhami, and A. Asroun, "Geotechnical Properties of Rubber Tires and Sediments Mixtures," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 618–624, Apr. 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.424
F. S. Khan, S. Azam, M. E. Raghunandan, and R. Clark, "Compressive Strength of Compacted Clay-Sand Mixes," Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 2014, Nov. 2014, Art. no. e921815. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/921815
T. A. Rind, H. Karira, A. A. Jhatial, S. Sohu, and A. R. Sandhu, "Particle Crushing Effect on The Geotechnical Properties of Soil," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 4131–4135, Jun. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2730
L. Zhang, F. Dang, J. Gao, and J. Ding, "Measurement and Investigation on 1-D Consolidation Permeability of Saturated Clay considering Consolidation Stress Ratio and Stress History," Geofluids, vol. 2021, Mar. 2021, Art. no. e6616331. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6616331
S. Nazari, M. Hassanlourad, E. Chavoshi, and A. Mirzaii, "Experimental Investigation of Unsaturated Silt-Sand Soil Permeability," Advances in Civil Engineering, vol. 2018, Jan. 2018, Art. no. e4946956. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4946956
J. Ding, X. Feng, Y. Cao, S. Qian, and F. Ji, "Consolidated Undrained Triaxial Compression Tests and Strength Criterion of Solidified Dredged Materials," Advances in Civil Engineering, vol. 2018, Oct. 2018, Art. no. e9130835. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9130835
S. Sun, F. Zhu, J. Wei, W. Wang, and H. Le, "Experimental Study on Shear Failure Mechanism and the Identification of Strength Characteristics of the Soil-Rock Mixture," Shock and Vibration, vol. 2019, Jul. 2019, Art. no. e7450509. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/7450509
M. Zhao, G. Liu, L. Deng, and Y. Li, "Optimizing the Compaction Characteristics and Strength Properties of Gravelly Soils in terms of Fine Contents," Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 2021, Jan. 2021, Art. no. e6634237. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6634237
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 428
PDF Downloads: 228
Copyright (c) 2021 S. Mohammed, D. D. Dirate, D. K. Dasho, R. K. Verma, V. R. Pampana, R. B. Sangalang, A. E. Koshuma, A. T. Ayalew
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.