This is a preview and has not been published. View submission

Genetic Algorithm-Based Multi-Hop Routing to Improve the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks


  • A. Rajab College of Computer Science and Information Systems, Najran University, Saudi Arabia
Volume: 11 | Issue: 6 | Pages: 7770-7775 | December 2021 |


Wireless sensor networks are known for their monitoring and tracking application-specific operations. These operations diversely demand improvement in existing strategies and their parameters. One key parameter is energy usage during operations. Energy plays a vital role in each application, as the wireless sensor networks lack battery lifetime and energy resources. So, there is a need for an optimized and efficient routing method with regard to energy consumption in wireless sensor networks. For multi-hop routing, the genetic algorithm serves as a robust algorithm with diverse optimized routing plans to improve the lifespan for large-scale wireless sensor networks. In this paper, the genetic algorithm provides the optimized routes for data operations and improves the lifetime of wireless sensor networks by saving energy. The performance of the genetic algorithm is compared with the TEEN algorithm.


wireless sensor network, multi-hop, genetic algorithm, optimization, lifetime durability


Download data is not yet available.


J. Zhang, "Wireless Sensor Networks: Lecture 1," Norrköping, Sweden, Jan. 17, 2014.

C. Li, J. Hailing, M. Yong, L. Tianpu, L. Wei, and and Z. Ze, "Overview of Wireless Sensor Networks," Journal of Computer Research and Development, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 163–174, Jan. 2005.

F. Samad, Q. Abu Ahmed, A. Shaikh, and A. Aziz, "JAM: Mitigating Jellyfish Attacks in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks," in Emerging Trends and Applications in Information Communication Technologies, 2012, pp. 432–444,

A. Shaikh, N. Anjum, F. Samad, and A. Shah, "Building Wireless Sensor Networks Application Using Sun SPOTs," in Emerging Trends and Applications in Information Communication Technologies, 2012, pp. 466–477,

M. A. Elmagzoub, A. Shaikh, A. Alghamdi, and K. Rajab, "A Review on MIMO Wireless Signals over Fibre for Next Generation Fibre Wireless (FiWi) Broadband Networks," Electronics, vol. 9, no. 12, Dec. 2020, Art. no. 2014,

S. Solangi, D. Hakro, A. Lashari, K.-U.-R. Khoumbati, Z. Bhutto, and M. Hameed, "Genetic Algorithm Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN): A Review," International Journal of Management Sciences and Business Research, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 152–166, Apr. 2017.

S. P. Singh and S. C. Sharma, "A Novel Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 1775–1780, Aug. 2017,

G. Huang, W. Tao, P. Liu, and S. Liu, "Multipath ring Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks," presented at the 2nd International Symposium on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation (ISCCCA 2013), Feb. 2013, pp. 768–771,

I. F. Akyildiz and M. C. Vuran, Wireless Sensor Networks, 1st ed. Chichester, West Sussex, UK ; Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2010.

P. Chanak and I. Banerjee, "Energy efficient fault-tolerant multipath routing scheme for wireless sensor networks," The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 42–61, Dec. 2013,

S. Wang, "Multipath Routing Based on Genetic Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks," Mathematical Problems in Engineering, vol. 2021, Jun. 2021, Art. no. e4815711,

N. A. Alrajeh, M. S. Alabed, and M. S. Elwahiby, "Secure Ant-Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network," International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, vol. 9, no. 6, Jun. 2013, Art. no. 326295,

L. J. and J. Huo, "Uneven Clustering Routing Algorithm Based on Optimal Clustering for Wireless Sensor Networks," Journal of Communications, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 132–142, Feb. 2016,

S. Md Zin, N. Badrul Anuar, M. L. Mat Kiah, and I. Ahmedy, "Survey of secure multipath routing protocols for WSNs," Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 55, pp. 123–153, Sep. 2015,

P. J. Morrissey, K. S. Vunnava, J. N. Potts, J. W. Ehm, and R. P. Singh, "Multi-path routing control for an encrypted tunnel," US9755953B1, Sep. 05, 2017.

T. Murakami, E. Kohno, and Y. Kakuda, "Radio Overlapping Reduced Multipath Routing Method by Utilizing Control Packet Overhearing to Counter Eavesdropping on Data Packets for Ad Hoc Networks," in 2015 Third International Symposium on Computing and Networking (CANDAR), Sapporo, Japan, Dec. 2015, pp. 167–173,

W. Bai, H. Wang, X. Shen, R. Zhao, and Y. Zhang, "Minimum Delay Multipath Routing Based on TDMA for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network," International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, vol. 12, no. 2, Feb. 2016, Art. no. 1394340,

K. B. Wand and L. L. Cheng, "Wireless sensor network redundancy sensor node state schedule method," Aplication Research of Computers, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 1227–1230, 2018.

M. Zhou, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, and Z. Tian, "An Information-Theoretic View of WLAN Localization Error Bound in GPS-Denied Environment," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 4089–4093, Apr. 2019,

Z. Y. Zhang, Y. J. Liu, and X. D. Wang, "Multi-path routing in multi-factor wireless sensor monitoring network," Computer Engineering & Science, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1064–1071, Jun. 2014.

W. Ma, F. Yan, X. Zuo, L. Ren, W. Xia, and L. Shen, "Coverage hole detection algorithm without location information in wireless sensor networks," in 2017 3rd IEEE International Conference on Computer and Communications (ICCC), Chengdu, China, Dec. 2017, pp. 357–361,

M. Zhou, Y. Wang, Z. Tian, Y. Lian, Y. Wang, and B. Wang, "Calibrated Data Simplification for Energy-Efficient Location Sensing in Internet of Things," IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 6125–6133, Aug. 2019,

M. Zhou, X. Li, Y. Wang, S. Li, Y. Ding, and W. Nie, "6G Multisource-Information-Fusion-Based Indoor Positioning via Gaussian Kernel Density Estimation," IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 8, no. 20, pp. 15117–15125, Oct. 2021,

W. R. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, "Energy-efficient communication protocol for wireless microsensor networks," in Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Maui, HI, USA, Jan. 2000,

A. Nayyar and R. Singh, "IEEMARP- a novel energy efficient multipath routing protocol based on ant Colony optimization (ACO) for dynamic sensor networks," Multimedia Tools and Applications, vol. 79, no. 47, pp. 35221–35252, Dec. 2020,

A. Manjeshwar and D. P. Agrawal, "TEEN: a routing protocol for enhanced efficiency in wireless sensor networks," in Proceedings 15th International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium. IPDPS 2001, San Francisco, CA, USA, Apr. 2001, pp. 2009–2015,

I. Mujahidin and A. Kitagawa, "The Novel CPW 2.4 GHz Antenna with Parallel Hybrid Electromagnetic Solar for IoT Energy Harvesting and Wireless Sensors," International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 393–400, 2021,

J. O. Obira and R. Sinde, "Development of a Sensor-Based Heartbeat and Body Temperature Monitoring System for Remote Chronic Patients," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 7375–7380, Aug. 2021,

M. K. Sastry, A. A. K. Mohammad, and A. M. Abdul, "Optimized Energy-efficient Load Balance Routing Protocol for Wireless Mesh Networks," International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications (IJACSA), vol. 12, no. 8, 2021,

M. B. Apsara, P. Dayananda, and C. N. Sowmyarani, "A Review on Secure Group Key Management Schemes for Data Gathering in Wireless Sensor Networks," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 5108–5112, Feb. 2020,


How to Cite

A. Rajab, “Genetic Algorithm-Based Multi-Hop Routing to Improve the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 7770–7775, Dec. 2021.


Abstract Views: 37
PDF Downloads: 20

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share