Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) for Spacers in Gas Insulated Systems: A Concise Review and Some Comments
Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) present a solution to control electrical stresses in high voltage applications. In this paper, a concise review is presented on the FGMs for spacers in gas-insulated systems. FGMs offer the possibility of a more even electric field distribution and thus a viable solution for industrial applications. FGMs are investigated here primarily as materials for permittivity control. Some aspects of FGMs are discussed as well as some thoughts on future challenges.
Keywords:gas insulated systems, dielectric constant, permittivity, triple junction point, dielectric strength, functionally graded materials, fillers, microfillers, nanofillers
T. J. Gallagher and A. J. Pearmain, High voltage : measurement, testing, and design. New York, NY, USA: Wiley, 1983.
E. Kuffel, W. S. Zaengl, and J. Kuffel, High Voltage Engineering Fundamentals, 2nd Edition. Oxford, UK: Elsevier, 2000.
J. Staight, "Properties and applications of solid/liquid composites," in Electrical Insulation, A. Bradwell, Ed. London, UK: Peter Peregrinus Ltd, 1983, pp. 147–163.
C. L. Wadhwa, High Voltage Engineering, 3rd ed. New Delhi, India: New Age Science, 2010.
A. Al-Gheilani, W. Rowe, Y. Li, and K. L. Wong, "Stress Control Methods on a High Voltage Insulator: A Review," Energy Procedia, vol. 110, pp. 95–100, Mar. 2017, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.112.
N. Parkman, "Breakdown in composites," in Electrical Insulation, London, UK: Peter Peregrinus Ltd, 1983.
M. G. Danikas and R. Sarathi, "Interfaces in High Voltage Engineering: A Most Important Question for Conventional Solid Insulating Materials as well as for Nanocomposite Polymers," Funktechnikplus # Journal, vol. 1, pp. 7–31, Mar. 2014.
D. Kind and H. Karner, High-Voltage Insulation Technology. Braunschweig, Germany: Springer, 1985.
K. Moeller and D. Meurer, "Auswirkungen von Teilentladungen auf elektrischen Isolierstoffe," in Teilentladungen in Betriebsmitteln der Energietechnik, D. Koenig and Y. N. Rao, Eds. Berlin, Germany: VDE-Verlag GmBH, 1993, pp. 85–104.
N. Zhang, T. Khan, H. Guo, S. Shi, W. Zhong, and W. Zhang, "Functionally Graded Materials: An Overview of Stability, Buckling, and Free Vibration Analysis," Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 2019, Feb. 2019, Art. no. e1354150, https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/1354150.
J. Li, H. Liang, Y. Chen, and B. Du, "Promising functional graded materials for compact gaseous insulated switchgears/pipelines," High Voltage, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 231–240, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1049/hve.2019.0327.
J. H. Mason, "Disharges," IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, vol. EI-13, no. 4, pp. 211–238, Aug. 1978, https://doi.org/10.1109/TEI.1978.298074.
K. C. Kao and D. M. Tu, "Formation of electrical treeing in polyethylene," in Conference on Electrical Insulation & Dielectric Phenomena - Annual Report, Amherst, MA, USA, Oct. 1982, pp. 598–603, https://doi.org/10.1109/CEIDP.1982.7726585.
T. Tanaka and A. Greenwood, Advanced power cable technology. Volume I. Basic concepts and testing. Florida, USA: CRC Press, 1983.
M. G. Danikas, "Small partial discharges and their role in insulation deterioration," IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 863–867, Dec. 1997, https://doi.org/10.1109/94.654733.
M. S. Naidu and V. Kamaraju, High-Voltage Engineering. New Delhi, India: McGraw-Hill, 2000.
M. Kurimoto, K. Kato, M. Hanai, Y. Hoshina, M. Takei, and H. Okubo, "Application of functionally graded material for reducing electric field on electrode and spacer interface," IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 256–263, Feb. 2010, https://doi.org/10.1109/TDEI.2010.5412025.
Y.-F. Zhang et al., "Simulation of Functionally Graded Material (FGM) for Cable Joint in AC and DC Field Optimization," in IEEE International Conference on High Voltage Engineering and Application, Beijing, China, Sep. 2020, pp. 1–4, https://doi.org/10.1109/ICHVE49031.2020.9280030.
V. Birman and L. W. Byrd, "Modeling and Analysis of Functionally Graded Materials and Structures," Applied Mechanics Reviews, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 195–216, Sep. 2007, https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2777164.
H. Okubo, K. Kato, N. Hayakawa, M. Hanai, and M. Takei, "Functionally Graded Materials and their Application to High Electric Field Power Equipment," in Performance of conventional and new materials for high voltage apparatus CIGRE SC D1 – COLLOQUIUM IN HUNGARY BUDAPEST 2009, Hungary, Budapest, 2009.
X. Yang, X. Zhao, J. Hu, and J. He, "Grading electric field in high voltage insulation using composite materials," IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 15–25, Jan. 2018, https://doi.org/10.1109/MEI.2018.8246118.
S. Diaham, Z. V. Nava, L. Leveque, T. T. Le, L. Laudebat, and T. Lebey, "An original in-situ way to build field grading materials (FGM) with permittivity gradient using electrophoresis," in 2nd International Conference on Dielectrics, Budapest, Hungary, Jul. 2018, pp. 1–4, https://doi.org/10.1109/ICD.2018.8514572.
A. P. Purnomoadi, A. Rodrigo Mor, and J. J. Smit, "Spacer flashover in Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS) with humid SF6 under different electrical stresses," International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 116, Mar. 2020, Art. no. 105559, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2019.105559.
S. A. Ward, M. A. A. Allah, and A. A. Youssef, "Effect of Functionally Graded Material of Spacer with Contaminating Particle on Breakdown Voltage inside Gas Insulated Bus Duct," International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 756–762, 2014.
S. Ganga, K. Dwarakanath, A. A. Natarajan, M. G. VijayaRaghavan, L. Ohri, and R. Vaikundh, "A study on suitability of functionally graded material for spacer application," in IEEE International Conference on Solid Dielectrics, Toulouse, France, Jul. 2004, vol. 2, pp. 521–524, https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSD.2004.1350483.
P. Janaki, N. Karthick, and G. V. N. Kumar, "Design and analysis of FGM post type spacer in a three phase common enclosure gas insulated busduct under delamination," Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 190, Jan. 2021, Art. no. 106834, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsr.2020.106834.
H. Shumiya, K. Kato, and H. Okubo, "Application feasibility of permittivity graded FGM (functionally graded materials) for gas-insulated equipment," Electrical Engineering in Japan, vol. 162, no. 2, pp. 39–45, 2008, https://doi.org/10.1002/eej.20363.
A. Rukmananda, G. V. N. Kumar, M. A. Bharathi, and S. K. Bali, "Insulation integrity of grading high insulating spacer with functionally graded material in a Gas Insulated Busduct," AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 2269, no. 1, Oct. 2020, Art. no. 030039, https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0019505.
N. C. Dathu, G. V. N. Kumar, M. A. Bharathi, and S. K. Bali, "Field stress control of a post type grading low insulating spacer with functionally graded material in a gas insulated bus duct," AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 2269, no. 1, Oct. 2020, Art. no. 030045, https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0019504.
J. Pakalapati, V. N. K. Gundavarapu, D. C. Duvvada, and S. K. Bali, "Study of electric field stress on the surface contour and at the triple junction in three phase GIS with FGM spacer under the depression defect," International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems, vol. 21, no. 5, Oct. 2020, https://doi.org/10.1515/ijeeps-2020-0080.
M. Yoshitaka, K. Hiroki, K. Katsumi, and H. Naoki, "Fabrication of GIS Spacer Model with ε-FGM (Functionally Graded Materials) and Theoretical Estimation of its Breakdown Voltage in SF6 Gas," IEEJ Transactions on Fundamentals and Materials, vol. 138, no. 4, pp. 155–162, 2018.
H. Okubo, J. Shimomura, Y. Fujii, N. Hayakawa, M. Hanai, and K. Kato, "Fabrication and simulation techniques of permittivity graded materials for gas insulated power equipment," in XVII International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering, Hannover, Germany, Aug. 2011, p. 5.
K. A. Naidu, G. V. N. Kumar, K. J. Ram, and D. D. Chowdary, "Electric Field Stress mitigation in a Gas Insulated Substation under delamination defect," International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, vol. 114, no. 8, pp. 131–141, 2017.
X.-R. Li et al., "3D printing fabrication of conductivity non-uniform insulator for surface flashover mitigation," IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 1172–1180, Aug. 2019, https://doi.org/10.1109/TDEI.2019.007938.
H. Yao, B. Du, J. Li, and Z. Wang, "Surface Functionally Graded Insulator for High Voltage Gas Insulated Apparatus," in Polymer Insulation Applied for HVDC Transmission, B. Du, Ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2020, pp. 549–568.
B. X. Du, Z. Y. Ran, J. Li, and H. C. Liang, "Novel insulator with interfacial σ-FGM for DC compact gaseous insulated pipeline," IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 818–825, Jun. 2019, https://doi.org/10.1109/TDEI.2019.007778.
M. Talaat, A. El-Zein, and M. Amin, "Electric field simulation for uniform and FGM cone type spacer with adhering spherical conducting particle in GIS," IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 339–351, Feb. 2018, https://doi.org/10.1109/TDEI.2018.006980.
J. Ishiguro, M. Kurimoto, H. Kojima, K. Kato, H. Okubo, and N. Hayakawa, "Electric field control in coaxial disk-type solid insulator by functionally graded materials (FGM)," in IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, Des Moines, IA, USA, Oct. 2014, pp. 663–666, https://doi.org/10.1109/CEIDP.2014.6995799.
N. Hayakawa, Y. Miyaji, H. Kojima, and K. Kato, "Simulation on discharge inception voltage improvement of GIS spacer with permittivity graded materials (ε-FGM) using flexible mixture casting method," IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 1318–1323, Aug. 2018, https://doi.org/10.1109/TDEI.2018.007236.
H.-J. Ju, B. Kim, and K.-C. Ko, "Optimal design of an elliptically graded permittivity spacer configuration in gas insulated switchgear," IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 1268–1273, Aug. 2011, https://doi.org/10.1109/TDEI.2011.5976126.
H. Okubo and A. Beroual, "Recent trend and future perspectives in electrical insulation techniques in relation to sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) substitutes for high voltage electric power equipment," IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 34–42, Mar. 2011, https://doi.org/10.1109/MEI.2011.5739421.
N. Hayashi, S. Tsuru, T. Onoda, Y. Sakamoto, and M. Hara, "Fabrication of Functionally Graded Epoxy Resin with Alumina Fillers and its Simulation by Using a Centrifugal Method," IEEJ Transactionson Fundamentals and Materials, vol. 124, no. 7, pp. 598–606, 2004, https://doi.org/10.1541/ieejfms.124.598.
N. Hayashi, T. Onoda, Y. Sakamoto, S. Tsuru, T. Kawabe, and M. Hara, "Fabrication of Permittivity Graded Epoxy Resin with Non-Uniform Dispersion of Alumina Fillers by a Centrifugal Procedure," Materials Science Forum, vol. 492–493, pp. 501–506, 2005, https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.492-493.501.
A. Al-Gheilani, Y. Li, K. L. Wong, and W. S. T. Rowe, "Electric Field Reduction by Multi-layer Functionally Graded Material with Controlled Permittivity and Conductivity Distribution," in IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, Richland, WA, USA, Oct. 2019, pp. 86–89, https://doi.org/10.1109/CEIDP47102.2019.9009929.
S. A. Qasim and N. Gupta, "Computation of Effective Properties of Graded and Layered Dielectrics," IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 460–467, Apr. 2021, https://doi.org/10.1109/TDEI.2020.009206.
Y. V. Serdyuk, A. D. Podoltsev, and S. M. Gubanski, "Numerical simulations and experimental study of frequency-dependent dielectric properties of composite material with stochastic structure," IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 379–392, Jun. 2004, https://doi.org/10.1109/TDEI.2004.1306717.
A. M. Bruning, D. G. Kasture, F. J. Campbell, and N. H. Turner, "Effect of cavity sub-corona current on polymer insulation life," IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 826–836, Aug. 1991, https://doi.org/10.1109/14.83709.
N. H. Turner, F. J. Campbell, A. M. Bruning, and D. G. Kasture, "Surface chemical changes of polymer cavities with currents above and below corona inception voltage," in Annual Report: Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, Victoria, BC, Canada, Oct. 1992, pp. 687–693, https://doi.org/10.1109/CEIDP.1992.283139.
A. M. Bruning and M. G. Danikas, "Experiments on polymer cavity currents above and below CIV," in Annual Report: Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, Victoria, BC, Canada, Oct. 1992, pp. 735–740, https://doi.org/10.1109/CEIDP.1992.283132.
B. Bernstein, Personal communication with one of authors (MGD), 14th December 2009
G. E. Vardakis, M. Danikas, and A. Nterekas, "Partial Discharges in Cavities and their Connection with Dipoles, Space Charges, and Some Phenomena Below Inception Voltage," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 5869–5874, Aug. 2020, https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3593.
G. Melissinos and M. Danikas, "On Polymers Nanocomposites: Electrical Treeing, Breakdown models and Related Simulations," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 2627–2632, Apr. 2018, https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.1726.
Y. Zhang, M. G. Danikas, X. Zhao, and Y. Cheng, "Preliminary experimental work on nanocomposite polymers: Small partial discharges at inception voltage, the existence of possible charging mechanisms below inception voltage and the problem of definitions," Journal of Electrical Engineering, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 109–114, 2012, https://doi.org/10.2478/v10187-012-0016-8.
Y. Zang et al., "Charging phenomena below the inception voltage: Effects of nanofillers on epoxy," Malaysian Polymer Journal, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 68–73, 2012.
S. Li, S. Yu, and Y. Feng, "Progress in and prospects for electrical insulating materials," High Voltage, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 122–129, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1049/hve.2016.0034.
K. K. Siderakis, D. Pylarinos, E. Thalassinakis, I. Vitellas, and E. Pyrgioti, "Pollution Maintenance Techniques in Coastal High Voltage Installations," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–7, Feb. 2011, https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.6.
M. Dimitropoulou, D. Pylarinos, K. Siderakis, E. Thalassinakis, and M. Danikas, "Comparative Investigation of Pollution Accumulation and Natural Cleaning for Different HV Insulators," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 764–774, Apr. 2015, https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.545.
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 142
PDF Downloads: 98
Copyright (c) 2021 K. L. Wong, M. Danikas
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.