A Simple and Fast Computation Equivalent Circuit Model to Investigate the Effect of Tape Twisting on the AC Loss of HTS Cables
Received: 3 August 2021 | Revised: 27 December 2021 | Accepted: 30 December 2021 | Online: 12 February 2022
Corresponding author: M. Yazdani-Asrami
This paper aims to evaluate the AC loss of a High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cable with respect to the twisting angle while considering mechanical constraints in an iterative approach. A 1km 22.9kV AC HTS cable was selected in this study to assess the impact of the twisting angle alterations. The electromagnetic behavior of the selected HTS cable was modeled using an Equivalent Circuit Model (ECM). After the implementation of this model in MATLAB/SIMULINK, a series of simulations were performed without the consideration of mechanical limits. They showed that the increase in the twisting angle leads to the decrease of the AC loss. Afterwards, simulations were conducted to reduce the AC loss, while mechanical limits were taken into account. This improvement could reduce the AC loss by 27.41% with a much lower computation time than Finite Element Methods (FEMs).
Keywords:HTS cables, power cables, twisting, magnetic field, AC loss
J. Chigvinadze, V. Tavkhelidze, G. Mamniashvili, G. Donadze, J. V. Acrivos, and D. Gulamova, "Vibrating Reed Study of Superconducting Cuprates Fabricated by Superfast Melt Quenching in a Solar Furnace," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 4495–4499, Aug. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2948
M. Yazdani-Asrami, W. Song, X. Pei, M. Zhang, and W. Yuan, "AC Loss Characterization of HTS Pancake and Solenoid Coils Carrying Nonsinusoidal Currents," IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 1–9, Aug. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TASC.2020.2971840
M. Yazdani-Asrami, W. Song, M. Zhang, W. Yuan, and X. Pei, "Magnetization Loss in HTS Coated Conductor Exposed to Harmonic External Magnetic Fields for Superconducting Rotating Machine Applications," IEEE Access, vol. 9, pp. 77930–77937, 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3062278
M. Yazdani-Asrami, M. Zhang, and W. Yuan, "Challenges for developing high temperature superconducting ring magnets for rotating electric machine applications in future electric aircrafts," Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, vol. 522, Mar. 2021, Art. no. 167543. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmmm.2020.167543
M. Yazdani-Asrami et al., "Fault current limiting HTS transformer with extended fault withstand time," Superconductor Science and Technology, vol. 32, no. 3, Feb. 2019, Art. no. 035006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6668/aaf7a8
W. Song et al., "AC Losses in Noninductive SFCL Solenoidal Coils Wound by Parallel Conductors," IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 1–9, Dec. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TASC.2020.3021339
D. I. Doukas, "Superconducting Transmission Systems: Review, Classification, and Technology Readiness Assessment," IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 1–5, Aug. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TASC.2019.2895395
G. Vyas and R. S. Dondapati, "AC losses in the development of superconducting magnetic energy storage devices," Journal of Energy Storage, vol. 27, Feb. 2020, Art. no. 101073. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.est.2019.101073
H. Maeda and Y. Yanagisawa, "Recent Developments in High-Temperature Superconducting Magnet Technology (Review)," IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1–12, Jun. 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TASC.2013.2287707
H. Thomas, A. Marian, A. Chervyakov, S. Stückrad, D. Salmieri, and C. Rubbia, "Superconducting transmission lines – Sustainable electric energy transfer with higher public acceptance?," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 55, pp. 59–72, Mar. 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.10.041
A. Zebar and L. Madani, "SFCL-SMES Control for Power System Transient Stability Enhancement Including SCIG-based Wind Generators," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 5477–5482, Apr. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3422
A. Safaei, S. H. Hosseinian, and H. A. Abyaneh, "Enhancing the HVRT and LVRT Capabilities of DFIG-based Wind Turbine in an Islanded Microgrid," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 2118–2123, Dec. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.1541
J. X. Jin, X. Y. Chen, R. Qu, H. Y. Fang, and Y. Xin, "An integrated low-voltage rated HTS DC power system with multifunctions to suit smart grids," Physica C: Superconductivity and its Applications, vol. 510, pp. 48–53, Mar. 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physc.2015.01.006
T. Nakayama, T. Yagai, M. Tsuda, and T. Hamajima, "Micro Power Grid System With SMES and Superconducting Cable Modules Cooled by Liquid Hydrogen," IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 2062–2065, Jun. 2009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TASC.2009.2018743
M. Yazdani-Asrami, S. A. Gholamian, S. M. Mirimani, and J. Adabi, "Investigation on Effect of Magnetic Field Dependency Coefficient of Critical Current Density on the AC Magnetizing Loss in HTS Tapes Exposed to External Field," Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 3899–3910, Dec. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10948-018-4664-1
W. Chen et al., "Numerical study on critical current and AC loss for different structured stack slotted-core HTS cables," Cryogenics, vol. 103, Oct. 2019, Art. no. 102972. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cryogenics.2019.102972
M. Tsuda, J. Fujimoto, N. Harada, and T. Hamajima, "AC loss reduction of coaxial multi-layer HTS cable," IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 642–645, Jun. 2004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TASC.2004.830014
M. Yazdani-Asrami, M. Staines, G. Sidorov, and A. Eicher, "Heat transfer and recovery performance enhancement of metal and superconducting tapes under high current pulses for improving fault current-limiting behavior of HTS transformers," Superconductor Science and Technology, vol. 33, no. 9, Aug. 2020, Art. no. 095014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6668/aba542
J. Ogawa, S. Fukui, M. Sugai, S. Aoyama, N. Koseki, and T. Matsubara, "AC Loss in Each Layer of Three-Layer Twisted HTS Cable," IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 1–6, Aug. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TASC.2019.2901213
S. Fukui, R. Kojima, J. Ogawa, M. Yamaguchi, T. Sato, and O. Tsukamoto, "Numerical Analysis of AC Loss Characteristics of Cable Conductor Assembled by HTS Tapes in Polygonal Arrangement," IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 143–146, Jun. 2006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TASC.2006.870818
F. Grilli, S. Stavrev, B. Dutoit, and S. Spreafico, "Numerical analysis of the effects of the magnetic self-field on the transport properties of a multilayer HTS cable," IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 94–102, Mar. 2004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TASC.2004.824333
H. Noji, S. Ooyama, and K. Nakajima, "Effective helical-pitch adjustment in a high-Tc superconducting cable for reducing AC losses," Physica C: Superconductivity, vol. 412–414, pp. 1206–1211, Oct. 2004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physc.2004.01.140
J. Zhu, X. Bao, L. Guo, Z. Xia, M. Qiu, and W. Yuan, "Optimal Design of Current Sharing in Transmission Conductors of a 110 kV/3 kA Cold Dielectric Superconducting Cable Consisted of YBCO Tapes," IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 5402505–5402505, Jun. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TASC.2013.2244156
X. Liu, S. Wang, J. Qiu, J. G. Zhu, Y. Guo, and Z. W. Lin, "Robust Optimization in HTS Cable Based on Design for Six Sigma," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 978–981, Jun. 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TMAG.2007.916279
T.-T. Nguyen et al., "A Simplified Model of Coaxial, Multilayer High-Temperature Superconducting Power Cables with Cu Formers for Transient Studies," Energies, vol. 12, no. 8, Jan. 2019, Art. no. 1514. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/en12081514
S.-K. Ha et al., "Development of an Impedance Matching Program for Balancing the Current Distribution in a Tri-axial HTS Power Cable," Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 759–762, Apr. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10948-012-2012-4
A. Sadeghi, S. M. Seyyedbarzegar, and M. Yazdani-Asrami, "Transient analysis of a 22.9 kV/2 kA HTS cable under short circuit using equivalent circuit model considering different fault parameters," Physica C: Superconductivity and its Applications, vol. 589, Oct. 2021, Art. no. 1353935. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physc.2021.1353935
T. Hamajima et al., "Balanced three-phase distribution experiment of a triaxial HTS cable," Electronics and Communications in Japan, vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 51–58, 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ecj.10283
K. Wang, W. Ta, and Y. Gao, "The winding mechanical behavior of conductor on round core cables," Physica C: Superconductivity and its Applications, vol. 553, pp. 65–71, Oct. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physc.2018.08.012
J. Lee and G. Cha, "Magnetization loss calculation in superconducting power transmission cable," Cryogenics, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 157–161, Mar. 2001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0011-2275(01)00067-4
M. Yazdani-Asrami, S. A. Gholamian, S. M. Mirimani, and J. Adabi, "Experimental investigation for power loss measurement of superconducting coils under harmonic supply current," Measurement, vol. 132, pp. 324–329, Jan. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2018.03.042
M. Yazdani-Asrami, S. A. Gholamian, S. M. Mirimani, and J. Adabi, "Calculation of AC Magnetizing Loss of ReBCO Superconducting Tapes Subjected to Applied Distorted Magnetic Fields," Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 3875–3888, Dec. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10948-018-4695-7
A. Sadeghi and S. Seyyedbarzegar, "An accurate model of the high-temperature superconducting cable by using stochastic methods," Transformers Magazine, vol. 8, no. S5, pp. 70–76, Aug. 2021.
J. Fleiter, M. Sitko, and A. Ballarino, "Analytical Formulation of Ic Dependence on Torsion of YBCO and BSCCO Conductors," IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 8000204–8000204, Jun. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TASC.2012.2228292
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 370
PDF Downloads: 326
Copyright (c) 2022 A. Sadeghi, S. Μ. Seyyed Barzegar, M. Yazdani-Asrami
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.