DyTE: An Effective Routing Protocol for VANET in Urban Scenarios
Published online first on March 11, 2021.
A Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is a subclass of wireless ad-hoc networks, widely used in on-road vehicles and roadside equipment, having applications in various areas including passenger safety, smart traffic solutions, and connectivity on vehicles The VANET is the backbone of the Intelligent Transport System (ITS) that establishes connectivity between vehicles through a wireless medium. When it comes to the communication between high-speed vehicles there is the challenge of dynamic mobility. In order to provide a higher Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) and increase the throughput, a new routing protocol called Dynamic Trilateral Enrolment (DyTE) is introduced which chooses a dynamic trilateral zone to find the destination vehicle by allowing only relevant nodes to participate in the communication process using the location coordinates of source and destination nodes. The proposed routing protocol is compared with Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Ad-hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV), and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), and the results show remarkable improvement in reducing the Network Routing Load (NRL) and increasing the PDR and throughput of the network. DyTE has performed more efficiently in terms of PDR (23% approximately), throughput (26% approximately) and drastically minimized the NRL by a factor of almost 3.
Keywords:trilateral zone, broadcast storm, location aided routing, vehicular ad-hoc networks
Y. Kim and I. Kim, "Security issues in vehicular networks," in The International Conference on Information Networking, Bangkok, Thailand, Jan. 2013, pp. 468-472.
C. Wan and J. Zhang, "Efficient identity-based data transmission for VANET," Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 1861-1871, Nov. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12652-017-0650-x
F. Cunha et al., "Data communication in VANETs: Protocols, applications and challenges," Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 44, pp. 90-103, Jul. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adhoc.2016.02.017
F. Li and Y. Wang, "Routing in vehicular ad hoc networks: A survey," IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 12-22, Jun. 2007. https://doi.org/10.1109/MVT.2007.912927
A. K. Kazi and S. M. Khan, "Working of various routing protocols in Vehicular Ad-hoc Network: A Survey," University of Sindh Journal of Information and Communication Technology, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 278-286, Dec. 2020.
Y. Ko and N. H. Vaidya, "Location‐Aided Routing (LAR) in mobile ad hoc networks," Wireless Networks, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 307-321, Sep. 2000. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1019106118419
G. G. Finn, "Routing and Addressing Problems in Large Metropolitan-Scale Internetworks," University Of Southern California Marina Del Rey Information Sciences Institute, ADA180187, Mar. 1987. Accessed: Mar. 10, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/citations/ADA180187. https://doi.org/10.21236/ADA180187
R. S. Raw, D. K. Lobiyal, S. Das, and S. Kumar, "Analytical Evaluation of Directional-Location Aided Routing Protocol for VANETs," Wireless Personal Communications, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 1877-1891, Jun. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-015-2320-7
B. Karp and H. T. Kung, "GPSR: greedy perimeter stateless routing for wireless networks," in 6th annual international conference on Mobile computing and networking, New York, NY, USA, Aug. 2000, pp. 243-254. https://doi.org/10.1145/345910.345953
S. A. Rao, M. Pai, M. Boussedjra, and J. Mouzna, "GPSR-L: Greedy perimeter stateless routing with lifetime for VANETS," in 8th International Conference on ITS Telecommunications, Phuket, Thailand, Oct. 2008, pp. 299-304. https://doi.org/10.1109/ITST.2008.4740275
C. Lochert, M. Mauve, H. Fubler, and H. Hartenstein, "Geographic routing in city scenarios," ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Communications Review, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 69-72, Jan. 2005. https://doi.org/10.1145/1055959.1055970
D. B. Johnson and D. A. Maltz, "Dynamic Source Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks," in Mobile Computing, T. Imielinski and H. F. Korth, Eds. Boston, MA, USA: Springer, 1996, pp. 153-181. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-585-29603-6_5
C. E. Perkins, E. M. Belding-Royer, and S. R. Das, Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing. The Internet Society, 2003. https://doi.org/10.17487/rfc3561
A. S. Azman, M. Y. Lee, S. K. Subramaniam, and F. S. Feroz, "Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols for Wireless Mesh Network using Grid Topology Suitable for Downstream Oil and Gas Pipeline," in International Conference on Computing and Information Technology, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia, Sep. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCIT-144147971.2020.9213718
S. K. Subramaniam, S. M. Khan, and R. Nilavalan, "Static Network Performance Optimisation Using Dual Interleave Routing Algorithm," IIUM Engineering Journal, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 129-143, Jun. 2018. https://doi.org/10.31436/iiumej.v19i1.841
M. Y. Lee, A. S. Azman, S. K. Subramaniam, and F. S. Feroz, "Performance Analysis of Linear Topology Wireless Sensor Network in Oil and Gas Industry," IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 765, Mar. 2020, Art. no. 012070. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/765/1/012070
H. Guo, F. B. A. Thani, W. C. Wong, and Y. Wu, "An optimized routing protocol for vehicular ad hoc networks," in TENCON 2010 - 2010 IEEE Region 10 Conference, Fukuoka, Japan, Nov. 2010, pp. 245-250.
D. Sutariya and S. Pradhan, "An improved AODV routing protocol for VANETs in city scenarios," in International Conference On Advances In Engineering, Science And Management, Nagapattinam, India, Mar. 2012, pp. 575-581.
M. K. Marina and S. R. Das, "Ad hoc on-demand multipath distance vector routing," Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 969-988, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1002/wcm.432
B. T. Sharef, R. A. Alsaqour, and M. Ismail, "Vehicular communication ad hoc routing protocols: A survey," Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 40, pp. 363-396, Apr. 2014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnca.2013.09.008
M. A. Soomro, M. I. Channa, Z. Hussain, and M. Ahmed, "EPLAODV: Energy Priority and Link Aware Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol for Post-disaster Communication Networks," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 5148-5152, Feb. 2020. https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3223
S. M. Khan, R. Nilavalan, and A. F. Sallama, "A Novel Approach for Reliable Route Discovery in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network," Wireless Personal Communications, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 1519-1529, Jul. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-015-2461-8
S. J. Gudakahriz, S. Jamali, M. V. Khiavi, and A. Soleimany, "A Stable TORA Based for Routing in Mobile Ad Ηoc Networks," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 2532-2536, Feb. 2018. https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.1720
S. M. Khan, M. M. Khan, N. A. Khan, and Waseemullah, "Efficient and Reliable Reactive Routing Protocol for Mobile AdHoc Network," International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 238-244, 2017.
K. Ullah, A. Sayyed, M. Aziz, and E. Moreira, "A beaconing-based roadside services discovery protocol for vehicular ad hoc networks," Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 2036-2051, Jun. 2019. https://doi.org/10.3906/elk-1802-175
K. Feng, C. Hsu, and T. Lu, "Velocity-Assisted Predictive Mobility and Location-Aware Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 448-464, Jan. 2008. https://doi.org/10.1109/TVT.2007.901897
S. L. O. B. Correia, J. Celestino, and O. Cherkaoui, "Mobility-aware Ant Colony Optimization routing for vehicular ad hoc networks," in IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, Cancun, Mexico, Mar. 2011, pp. 1125-1130. https://doi.org/10.1109/WCNC.2011.5779289
H. Rana, P. Thulasiraman, and R. K. Thulasiram, "MAZACORNET: Mobility aware zone based ant colony optimization routing for VANET," in IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, Cancun, Mexico, Jun. 2013, pp. 2948-2955. https://doi.org/10.1109/CEC.2013.6557928
H. Bello-Salau, A. M. Aibinu, Z. Wang, A. J. Onumanyi, E. N. Onwuka, and J. J. Dukiya, "An optimized routing algorithm for vehicle ad-hoc networks," Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 754-766, Jun. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jestch.2019.01.016
B. Moussaoui, S. Djahel, H. Khelifi, and S. Merniz, "Towards enhanced reactive routing in urban Vehicular Ad hoc Networks," in International Conference on Protocol Engineering (ICPE) and International Conference on New Technologies of Distributed Systems, Paris, France, Jul. 2015, pp. 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1109/NOTERE.2015.7293506
T. Sivakumar and R. Manoharan, "ERP: An efficient reactive routing protocol for dense vehicular ad hoc networks," Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 1762-1772, Jun. 2017. https://doi.org/10.3906/elk-1507-147
R. Gandhi and S. Parthasarathy, "Distributed algorithms for connected domination in wireless networks," Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 67, no. 7, pp. 848-862, Jul. 2007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpdc.2007.04.003
S. Arianmehr and M. A. Jabraeil Jamali, "HybTGR: a hybrid routing protocol based on topological and geographical information in vehicular ad hoc networks," Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 1683-1695, Apr. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12652-019-01332-z
T. Issariyakul and E. Hossain, Introduction to Network Simulator NS2. Boston, MA, USA: Springer, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-71760-9
S. R. Santana, J. J. Sanchez-Medina, and E. Rubio-Royo, "How to Simulate Traffic with SUMO," in Computer Aided Systems Theory - EUROCAST 2015, Canary Islands, Spain, Feb. 2015, pp. 773-778. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-27340-2_95
J. Thebault-Spieker, B. Hecht, and L. Terveen, "Geographic Biases are 'Born, not Made': Exploring Contributors' Spatiotemporal Behavior in OpenStreetMap," in Proceedings of the 2018 ACM Conference on Supporting Groupwork, New York, NY, USA, Jan. 2018, pp. 71-82. https://doi.org/10.1145/3148330.3148350
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 303
PDF Downloads: 218
Copyright (c) 2021 Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.