Seismic Evaluation of the RC Moment Frame Structure using the Shake Table
Published online first on December 30, 2020.
This paper presents the findings of an experimental investigation on a reinforced concrete frame structure (ordinary moment resistant frame). The test model was subjected to lateral excitation employing the 1994 Northridge earthquake accelerogram. The reinforced concrete test model was fabricated in 1:3 reduced scale acquiring dimensional similarities. The utilized ingredient mix ratio was 1:1.65:1.75 and the water to binder ratio was 0.47. The dynamic characteristics (natural frequency and elastic viscous damping) were calculated using the free vibration record. Story shear, drift, and displacement profiles were drawn using multiple excitation records along with damage patterns and capacity curves. The natural frequency of 2.47Hz was calculated for the test specimen, which is equivalent to 1.41Hz for the prototype. Structural damping (elastic viscous) of 12.36% was calculated for the prototype.
M. Rizwan, N. Ahmad, A. Naeem Khan, S. Qazi, J. Akbar, and M. Fahad, "Shake table investigations on code non-compliant reinforced concrete frames," Alexandria Engineering Journal, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 349-367, Feb. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2019.12.047
X. Lu, G. Fu, W. Shi, and W. Lu, "Shake table model testing and its application," The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 181-201, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1002/tal.338
M. Rizwan, N. Ahmad, and A. N. Khan, "Seismic Performance of Compliant and Noncompliant Special Moment-Resisting Reinforced Concrete Frames," Structural Journal, vol. 115, no. 4, pp. 1063-1073, Jul. 2018. https://doi.org/10.14359/51702063
C. S. Oliveira and M. Navarro, "Fundamental periods of vibration of RC buildings in Portugal from in-situ experimental and numerical techniques," Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 609-642, Jun. 2010. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-009-9162-1
Q. Jiang, X. Lu, H. Guan, and X. Ye, "Shaking table model test and FE analysis of a reinforced concrete mega-frame structure with tuned mass dampers," The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, vol. 23, no. 18, pp. 1426-1442, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1002/tal.1150
G. Xu and M. Yamanari, "Performance of Steel Frame with Linkage System under Earthquake Excitation," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 3796-3802, Feb. 2019. https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2519
M. Z. Kabir and O. Rezaifar, "Shaking table examination on dynamic characteristics of a scaled down 4-story building constructed with 3D-panel system," Structures, vol. 20, pp. 411-424, Aug. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.istruc.2019.05.006
M. Rizwan et al., "Global Seismic Fragility Functions for Low-Rise RC Frames with Construction Deficiencies," Advances in Civil Engineering, vol. 2020, p. 3174738, Jul. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/3174738
M. H. Arslan and H. H. Korkmaz, "What is to be learned from damage and failure of reinforced concrete structures during recent earthquakes in Turkey?," Engineering Failure Analysis, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1-22, Jan. 2007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engfailanal.2006.01.003
B. Erdil, "Why RC Buildings Failed in the 2011 Van, Turkey, Earthquakes: Construction versus Design Practices," Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, vol. 31, no. 3, p. 04016110, Jun. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CF.1943-5509.0000980
J. G. Ruiz-Pinilla, J. M. Adam, R. Pérez-Cárcel, J. Yuste, and J. J. Moragues, "Learning from RC building structures damaged by the earthquake in Lorca, Spain, in 2011," Engineering Failure Analysis, vol. 68, pp. 76-86, Oct. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engfailanal.2016.05.013
A. Sharma, G. R. Reddy, and K. K. Vaze, "Shake table tests on a non-seismically detailed RC frame structure," Structural Engineering and Mechanics, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 1-24, Jan. 2012. https://doi.org/10.12989/sem.2012.41.1.001
Y. R. Li and J. O. Jirsa, "Nonlinear Analyses of an Instrumented Structure Damaged in the 1994 Northridge Earthquake," Earthquake Spectra, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 265-283, May 1998. https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1585999
B. Moaveni, A. Stavridis, G. Lombaert, J. P. Conte, and P. B. Shing, "Finite-Element Model Updating for Assessment of Progressive Damage in a 3-Story Infilled RC Frame," Journal of Structural Engineering, vol. 139, no. 10, pp. 1665-1674, Oct. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000586
Y. Zheng, Y.-L. Xu, and S. Zhan, "Seismic Responses and Collapse of a RC Pedestrian Cable-Stayed Bridge: Shake Table Tests," International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics, vol. 19, no. 07, p. 1950067, Feb. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0219455419500676
P. Quintana-Gallo, S. Pampanin, A. J. Carr, and P. Bonelli, "Shake table tests of under-designed RC frames for the seismic retrofit of buildings - design and similitude requirements of the benchmark specimen," in Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Earthquake Engineering, 2010.
A. Casaburo, G. Petrone, F. Franco, and S. De Rosa, "A Review of Similitude Methods for Structural Engineering," Applied Mechanics Reviews, vol. 71, no. 030802, Jun. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4043787
N. Ahmad et al., "Seismic Performance Assessment of Non-Compliant SMRF-Reinforced Concrete Frame: Shake-Table Test Study," Journal of Earthquake Engineering, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 444-462, Mar. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469.2017.1326426
N. Ahmad, A. Shahzad, Q. Ali, M. Rizwan, and A. N. Khan, "Seismic fragility functions for code compliant and non-compliant RC SMRF structures in Pakistan," Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 4675-4703, Oct. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-018-0377-x
J. Akbar, N. Ahmad, B. Alam, and M. Ashraf, "Seismic performance of RC frames retrofitted with haunch technique," Structural Engineering and Mechanics, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 001-008, Jan. 2018.
H. Ullah, N. Ahmad, and M. Rizwan, "Shake-table tests on frame built in crumb rubber concrete," Advances in Structural Engineering, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 2003-2017, Jul. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1177/1369433220906933
C. H. Wolowicz, J. S. Bowman, and W. P. Gilbert, "Similitude requirements and scaling relationships as applied to model testing," NASA Technical Paper 1435, Aug. 1979.
S. Gavridou, J. W. Wallace, T. Nagae, T. Matsumori, K. Tahara, and K. Fukuyama, "Shake-Table Test of a Full-Scale 4-Story Precast Concrete Building. I: Overview and Experimental Results," Journal of Structural Engineering, vol. 143, no. 6, p. 04017034, Jun. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0001755
N. Ahmad and H. Shakeel, "Seismic Isolation of RC Bridges using Low-Cost High Damping Rubber Bearings," presented at the 1st Conference on Sustainability in Civil Engineering, Islamabad, Pakistan, Aug. 1, 2019.
Z. A. AbdulJaleel and B. O. Taha, "Selection of Compatible Ground Motions with the Seismic Characteristics of Erbil City, the Capital of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq," Polytechnic Journal, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 110-120, Jun. 2020. https://doi.org/10.25156/ptj.v10n1y2020.pp110-120
D. Kar and R. Roy, "Seismic behavior of RC bridge piers under bidirectional excitations: Implications of site effects," Journal of Earthquake Engineering, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 303-331, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469.2016.1233919
G. Terenzi, "Dynamics of SDOF Systems with Nonlinear Viscous Damping," Journal of Engineering Mechanics, vol. 125, no. 8, pp. 956-963, Aug. 1999. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399(1999)125:8(956)
H. Pan, K. Kusunoki, and Y. Hattori, "Capacity-curve-based damage evaluation approach for reinforced concrete buildings using seismic response data," Engineering Structures, vol. 197, p. 109386, Oct. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2019.109386
H. Chaulagain, H. Rodrigues, E. Spacone, and H. Varum, "Seismic response of current RC buildings in Kathmandu Valley," Structural Engineering and Mechanics, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 791-818, Jan. 2015. https://doi.org/10.12989/sem.2015.53.4.791
R. A. Hakim, M. S. A. Alama, and S. A. Ashour, "Seismic Assessment of an RC Building Using Pushover Analysis," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 631-635, Jun. 2014. https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.428
MetricsAbstract Views: 238
PDF Downloads: 130
Copyright (c) 2020 Muhammad Rizwan
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.