Energy Efficient Resource Allocation in Millimeter-Wave D2D Enabled 5G Cellular Networks
The current trend has seen the data capacity and traffic density increase due to the increased demand for multimedia services. Since this cannot be handled successfully by the current 4G networks, there is a need to integrate the mmWave and the Device-to-Device (D2D) communication 5G technologies to meet this increased demand and traffic density. However, there is the challenge of increased interference between dense D2D users and cellular users if D2D users are allowed to reuse the resources allocated to cellular users. This degrades the performance of the D2D users in terms of achievable data rate and Energy Efficiency (EE). The paper formulates a match theoretic resource allocation scheme to maximize the achievable D2D sum rate. In addition, an EE optimization problem is formulated for D2D users by considering the rate and power constraints. The EE optimization problem is solved by the Lagrangian dual decomposition method. The algorithms were simulated in MATLAB and the results were compared to Hungarian and heuristic optimization algorithms. The results showed that the match theoretic resource allocation is on average 1.82 times better than the Hungarian algorithm. At the same time, the match theoretic resource allocation algorithm increases fairness in resource allocation as it maintains a higher sum rate for low and high-density number of users. The proposed EE optimization algorithm improved the D2D performance by 8.2% compared to the heuristic algorithm.
A. Gupta and R. K. Jha, "A Survey of 5G Network: Architecture and Emerging Technologies," IEEE Access, vol. 3, pp. 1206-1232, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2015.2461602
H. Alsaif, "Extreme Wide Band MIMO Antenna System for Fifth Generation Wireless Systems," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 5492-5495, Apr. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3413
F. O. Ombongi, H. O. Absaloms, and P. L. Kibet, "Resource Allocation in Millimeter-Wave Device-to-Device Networks," Mobile Information Systems, vol. 2019, Dec. 2019, Art. no. 5051360. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/5051360
Z. Hussain, A. ur R. Khan, H. Mehdi, and S. M. A. Saleem, "Analysis of Device-to-Device Communication over Double-Generalized Gamma Channels," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 3265-3269, Aug. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2230
C.-L. I. S. Han, and S. Bian, "Energy-efficient 5G for a greener future," Nature Electronics, vol. 3, pp. 182-184, Apr. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41928-020-0404-1
F. Jameel, Z. Hamid, F. Jabeen, S. Zeadally, and M. A. Javed, "A Survey of Device-to-Device Communications: Research Issues and Challenges," IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 2133-2168, thirdquarter 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/COMST.2018.2828120
A. Zappone, E. Björnson, L. Sanguinetti, and E. Jorswieck, "Globally Optimal Energy-Efficient Power Control and Receiver Design in Wireless Networks," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 65, no. 11, pp. 2844-2859, Jun. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TSP.2017.2673813
G. D. Swetha and G. R. Murthy, "D2D communication as an underlay to next generation cellular systems with resource management and interference avoidance," in International Conference on Wireless Communications, Signal Processing and Networking, Chennai, India, Mar. 2017, pp. 1348-1352. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/WiSPNET.2017.8299983
G. D. Swetha and G. R. Murthy, "Fair resource allocation for D2D communication in mmwave 5G networks," in 16th Annual Mediterranean Ad Hoc Networking Workshop, Budva, Montenegro, Jun. 2017, pp. 1-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MedHocNet.2017.8001654
W. Chang and J. Teng, "Energy Efficient Relay Matching With Bottleneck Effect Elimination Power Adjusting for Full-Duplex Relay Assisted D2D Networks Using mmWave Technology," IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 3300-3309, 2018.
M. Feng, S. Mao, and T. Jiang, "Dealing with link blockage in mmWave networks: D2D relaying or multi-beam reflection?," in IEEE 28th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications, Montreal, QC, Canada, Oct. 2017, pp. 1-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/PIMRC.2017.8292232
S. A. R. Naqvi et al., "Energy-Aware Radio Resource Management in D2D-Enabled Multi-Tier HetNets," IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 16610-16622, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2817189
R. Chevillon, G. Andrieux, R. Négrier, and J. Diouris, "Spectral and Energy Efficiency Analysis of mmWave Communications With Channel Inversion in Outband D2D Network," IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 72104-72116, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2882679
J. Li, X. Li, A. Wang, and N. Ye, "Performance Analysis for Downlink MIMO-NOMA in Millimeter Wave Cellular Network with D2D Communications," Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, vol. 2019, Jun. 2019, Art. no. 1914762. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/1914762
O. E. Ochia and A. O. Fapojuwo, "Energy and Spectral Efficiency Analysis for a Device-to-Device-Enabled Millimeter-Wave OFDMA Cellular Network," IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 67, no. 11, pp. 8097-8111, Nov. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TCOMM.2019.2935728
B. Kaufman, J. Lilleberg, and B. Aazhang, "Spectrum Sharing Scheme Between Cellular Users and Ad-hoc Device-to-Device Users," IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 1038-1049, Mar. 2013.  A. Gjendemsjo, D. Gesbert, G. E. Oien, and S. G. Kiani, "Optimal Power Allocation and Scheduling for Two-Cell Capacity Maximization," in 4th International Symposium on Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc and Wireless Networks, Boston, MA, USA, Mar. 2006, pp. 1-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TWC.2012.011513.120063
D. F. Manlove, Algorithmics Of Matching Under Preferences. Republic of Singapore: World Scientific, 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1142/8591
D. Gusfield, "Three Fast Algorithms for Four Problems in Stable Marriage," SIAM Journal on Computing, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 111-128, Feb. 1987. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1137/0216010
Z. Zhou, M. Dong, K. Ota, J. Wu, and T. Sato, "Energy Efficiency and Spectral Efficiency Tradeoff in Device-to-Device (D2D) Communications," IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 485-488, Oct. 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/LWC.2014.2337295
S. Boyd and L. Vandenberghe, Convex Optimization. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511804441
K. T. K. Cheung, S. Yang, and L. Hanzo, "Achieving Maximum Energy-Efficiency in Multi-Relay OFDMA Cellular Networks: A Fractional Programming Approach," IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 2746-2757, Jul. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TCOMM.2013.13.120727
M. R. Akdeniz et al., "Millimeter Wave Channel Modeling and Cellular Capacity Evaluation," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1164-1179, Jun. 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/JSAC.2014.2328154
"[SPEC] 3GPP TR 36.746 - Study on further enhancements to LTE Device to Device (D2D), UE to network relays for Internet of Things (IoT) and wearables - iTecTec." https://itectec.com/archive/3gpp-specification-tr-36-746/ (accessed Aug. 02, 2020).
ETSI TS 138 101-1 V15.5.0. 5G; NR; User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception; Part 1: Range 1 Standalone (3GPP TS 38.101-1 version 15.5.0 Release 15). Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France: ETSI, 2020.
W. Xiang, K. Zheng, and X. S. Shen, 5G Mobile Communications. Switzerland: Springer, 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-34208-5
MetricsAbstract Views: 301
PDF Downloads: 225
Copyright (c) 2020 Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.