Geometry Investigation and Performance Optimization of a Single-Mass Piezoelectric 6-DOF IMU
This paper explores the fundamental steps towards the development of a 6-axis piezoelectric Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). The main specification of the reported device is its ability to concurrently detect 3-axis acceleration and angular velocity using a single mass-based design. This work represents a detailed numerical analysis based on a finite element model. Experimental reported data are exploited to validate the FEM model in terms of acceleration detection which is ensured through the direct piezoelectric effect. The angular rate is detected thanks to the Coriolis effect by ensuring drive and sense modes. Using a Finite Element Analysis (FEA), light was shed on the different basic parameters that influence the sensor performance in order to present an optimized design. A detailed geometrical investigation of factors such as anchor position, optimized locations for sensing electrodes, proof-mass dimensions, PZT thickness, and operating frequency is illustrated. The 6-DOF sensor outputs are extracted in terms of the original and the optimized design. The amelioration rate of sensitivity is found to be up to 165% for linear acceleration, while for angular rate sensing, the lateral sensitivity is ameliorated by about 330% and is multiplied by around ten times in the normal axis. The optimized design exhibits a good acceleration sensitivity of 260mV/g in the lateral axis and 60.7mV/g in the z-axis. For angular rate sensing, the new design is more sensitive along the longitudinal axis than the lateral one. Sensitivity values are found to be 2.65µV/rad/s for both x-and y-axis, and 1.24V/rad/s for the z-axis.
Keywords:acceleration, Coriolis effect, angular rate detection, FEM simulations, inertial measurement unit, piezoelectric detection
A. S. Kundu, O. Mazumder, P. K. Lenka, and S. Bhaumik, "Hand Gesture Recognition Based Omnidirectional Wheelchair Control Using IMU and EMG Sensors," Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 529-541, Sep. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10846-017-0725-0
A. Zul Azfar and D. Hazry, "A simple approach on implementing IMU sensor fusion in PID controller for stabilizing quadrotor flight control," in 7th International Colloquium on Signal Processing and its Applications, Penang, Malaysia, Mar. 2011, pp. 28-32. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/CSPA.2011.5759837
D. A. Gura, G. G. Shevchenko, L. F. Kirilchik, D. V. Petrenkov, and T. A. Gura, "Application of inertial measuring unit in air navigation for ALS and DAP," Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, vol. 9, no. 1S, pp. 732-741, Jul. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/jfas.v9i1s.727
N. Ahmad, R. A. Raja Ghazilla, N. Khairi, and V. Kasi, "Reviews on Various Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) Sensor Applications," International Journal of Signal Processing Systems, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 256-262, Jan. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.12720/ijsps.1.2.256-262
F. Aghili and A. Salerno, "Driftless 3-D Attitude Determination and Positioning of Mobile Robots By Integration of IMU With Two RTK GPSs," IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 21-31, Feb. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TMECH.2011.2161485
M. Hutter, C. Gehring, M. Bloesch, M. A. Hoepflinger, C. D. Remy, and R. Siegwart, "StarlETH: A compliant quadrupedal robot for fast, efficient, and versatile locomotion," in 15th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robot - CLAWAR, Baltimore, USA, Jul. 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814415958_0062
G. Fenu and G. Steri, "IMU based post-traumatic rehabilitation assessment," in 3rd International Symposium on Applied Sciences in Biomedical and Communication Technologies, Rome, Italy, Nov. 2010, pp. 1-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ISABEL.2010.5702813
P. T. Gibbs and H. Asada, "Wearable Conductive Fiber Sensors for Multi-Axis Human Joint Angle Measurements," Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, vol. 2, no. 1, Mar. 2005, Art. no. 7.
S.-H. P. Won, F. Golnaraghi, and W. W. Melek, "A Fastening Tool Tracking System Using an IMU and a Position Sensor With Kalman Filters and a Fuzzy Expert System," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 1782-1792, May 2009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2008.2010166
F. Qin, X. Zhan, and G. Du, "Improvement of global navigation satellite system signal acquisition using different grade inertial measurement units for high dynamic applications," IET Radar, Sonar & Navigation, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 233-241, Mar. 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-rsn.2012.0362
D. Dobriborsci, A. Kapitonov, and N. Nikolaev, "The basics of the identification, localization and navigation for mobile robots," in International Conference on Information and Digital Technologies, Zilina, Slovakia, Jul. 2017, pp. 100-105. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/DT.2017.8024279
S. Bose, A. K. Gupta, and P. Handel, "On the noise and power performance of a shoe-mounted multi-IMU inertial positioning system," in International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation, Sapporo, Japan, Sep. 2017, pp. 1-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/IPIN.2017.8115944
S. Yean, B. S. Lee, C. K. Yeo, and C. H. Vun, "Algorithm for 3D orientation estimation based on Kalman Filter and Gradient Descent," in IEEE 7th Annual Information Technology, Electronics and Mobile Communication Conference, Oct. 2016, pp. 1-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/IEMCON.2016.7746263
A. Beke, A. A. Yuceler, and T. Kumbasar, "A rule based fuzzy gesture recognition system to interact with Sphero 2.0 using a smart phone," in International Artificial Intelligence and Data Processing Symposium, Malatya, Turkey, Sep. 2017, pp. 1-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/IDAP.2017.8090191
G. Newell and G. Vejarano, "Human-motion based transmission power control in wireless body area networks," in IEEE 3rd World Forum on Internet of Things, Reston, VA, USA, Dec. 2016, pp. 277-282. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/WF-IoT.2016.7845404
D. K. Shaeffer, "MEMS inertial sensors: A tutorial overview," IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 100-109, Apr. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MCOM.2013.6495768
S. A. Alqarni, A. M. Obeid, M. S. BenSaleh, and S. M. Qasim, "A fully integrated CMOS interface ASIC for two-axis piezoelectric angular rate MEMS inertial sensors," in IEEE SENSORS, Busan, South Korea, Nov. 2015, pp. 1-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSENS.2015.7370382
K. Hari, S. K. Verma, I. R. Praveen Krishna, and V. Seena, "Out-of-plane dual flexure MEMS piezoresistive accelerometer with low cross axis sensitivity," Microsystem Technologies, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 2437-2444, May 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00542-017-3679-z
Y. V. Filatov, A. M. Boronakhin, V. B. Dao, V. C. Le, and L. N. Podgornaya, "Studying the static errors of MEMS accelerometer triad in quasiharmonic oscillation mode," Gyroscopy and Navigation, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 121-128, Apr. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1134/S2075108717020055
L. Meyer, A. Buhmann, R. Eid, and J. G. Korvink, "Root Cause Analysis of Zero-Rate Output Sources in an MEMS Gyroscope," IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 959-966, Feb. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/JSEN.2016.2636563
S. Dellea, P. Rey, and G. Langfelder, "MEMS Gyroscopes Based on Piezoresistive NEMS Detection of Drive and Sense Motion," Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 1389-1399, Dec. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/JMEMS.2017.2749121
C. Acar, "Micromachined monolithic 6-axis inertial sensor," US 9,278,846 B2, Mar. 2016.
R. Amarasinghe, D. V. Dao, T. Toriyama, and S. Sugiyama, "Development of miniaturized 6-axis accelerometer utilizing piezoresistive sensing elements," Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 134, no. 2, pp. 310-320, Mar. 2007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2006.05.044
J. Liu, M. Li, L. Qin, and J. Liu, "Principle Research on a Single Mass Piezoelectric Six-Degrees-of-Freedom Accelerometer," Sensors, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 10844-10855, Aug. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/s130810844
K. Okada, T. Kakutani, H. Itano, Y. Matsu, and S. Sugiyama, "Development of 6-axis Motion Sensors Using Piezoelectric Elements," in 21st Sensor Symposium, Kyoto, Japan, Oct. 2004, pp. 385-390.
K. Okada, T. Kakutani, and Y. Matsu, "Development of the 3-axis Angular Velocity Sensor Using a Piezoelectric Element," IEEJ Transactions on Sensors and Micromachines, vol. 125, no. 6, pp. 272-277, 2005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1541/ieejsmas.125.272
C. Liu, Foundations of MEMS, 2nd Edition. London, UK: Pearson, 2012.
J. M. Calderon-Moreno, "Stress induced domain switching of PZT in compression tests," Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol. 315, no. 1, pp. 227-230, Sep. 2001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-5093(01)01154-6
M. D. Nguyen, M. Dekkers, H. N. Vu, and G. Rijnders, "Film-thickness and composition dependence of epitaxial thin-film PZT-based mass-sensors," Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 199, pp. 98-105, Sep. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2013.05.004
S. Bhuvana, S. H. Prathiksha, V. T. Sindhu, and H. Vasudha, "Design and Analysis of Piezoelectric Cantilever Based Vibration Sensor," in International Conference on System, Computation, Automation and Networking, Pondicherry, India, Jul. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSCAN.2018.8541161
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 308
PDF Downloads: 168
Copyright (c) 2020 Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.