Socio-environmental Impacts Associated with Burning Alternative Fuels in Clinker Kilns


  • F. B. Mainier Escola de Engenharia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil
  • L. P. C. Monteiro Escola de Engenharia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil
  • R. J. Mainier Escola de Engenharia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil
Volume: 3 | Issue: 4 | Pages: 479-482 | August 2013 |


The pollutants found in emissions from cement plants depend on the processes used and the operation of the clinker kilns. Another crucial aspect concerns the characteristics of raw materials and fuels. The intensive use of fuels in rotary kilns of cement plants and the increasing fuel diversification, including fuels derived from coal and oil, from a multitude of industrial waste and from biomass, charcoal and agricultural waste (sugarcane bagasse, rice husk), is increasing the possibilities of combinations or mixtures of different fuels, known as blends. Thus, there are socio-environmental impacts associated with the burning of alternative fuels in clinker kilns. In view of the growing trend of entrepreneurs who want to target the waste produced in their unit and of the owners of the cement plants who want to reduce their production costs by burning a waste with lower cost than conventional fuels, it is necessary to warn that a minimum level of environmental care should be followed regarding these decisions. It is necessary to monitor the points of emission from cement kilns and in the wider area influenced by the plant, in order to improve environmental quality. Laboratory studies of burning vulcanised rubber contaminated with arsenic simulate the burning of used tires in cement clinker kilns producing SO2 and As2O3.


cement plants, arsenic, tyres, clinker kilns


Download data is not yet available.


M. Achternbosch, K. R. Bräutigam, N. Hartlieb, C. Kupsch, U. Richers, P. Stemmermann, M. Gleis, Heavy metals in cement and concrete resulting from the co-incineration of wastes in cement kilns with regard to the legitimacy of waste utilization, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Karlsruhe , 2003.

R. Kikuchi, R. Gerardo, “More than a decade of conflict between hazardous waste management and public resistance: A case study of NIMBY syndrome in Souselas (Portugal)”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 172, No. 2-3, pp. 1681-1685, 2009 DOI:

L. P. C. Monteiro, Avaliação do Impacto Ambiental Associado à Queima de Resíduos Industriais em Fornos de Clínquer: visão sob o prisma da educação ambiental, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Tese de Doutorado, UFF, Outubro, 2007

C. Y. Kawabata, H. Savastano Junior, J. Souza-Coutinho, “Rice husk derived waste materials as partial cement replacement in lightweight concrete”, Ciência e Agrotecnologia, Vol.. 36, No. 5, pp. 567-578, 2012 DOI:

J. G. Silva, Há emissões acrescidas na co-incineração de resíduos industriais perigosos em cimenteiras, Universidade de Coimbra, Associação Nacional de Conservação da Natureza, QUERCUS, 2002

R. Ferrari, “Co-processamento de resíduos industriais em fornos de clínquer”, Companhia de Cimento Itambé, Balsa Nova, 2002

P. Shih, J. Chang, H. Lu, L. Chiang, “Reuse of heavy metal-containing sludges in cement production”, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 35, No. 11, pp. 2110-2115, 2005 DOI:

D. Lemarchand, “Cement kiln incineration associated to pre-treatment, a viable waste management solution”, Congresso Brasileiro de Cimento, Anais São Paulo, 1999

F. Bagnoli, A. Bianchi, A. Ceccarini, R. Fuoco, S. Giannarelli, “Trace metals and organic pollutants in treated and untreated residues from urban solid waste incinerators”, Microchemical Journal, Vol. 79, No. 1-2, pp. 291-297, 2005 DOI:

F. B. Mainier, B. P. Salvini, L. P. C. Monteiro , R. J. Mainier, “Recycling of tires in Brazil: a lucrative business or an imported problem”, International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 19-28, 2013 DOI:


How to Cite

F. B. Mainier, L. P. C. Monteiro, and R. J. Mainier, “Socio-environmental Impacts Associated with Burning Alternative Fuels in Clinker Kilns”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 479–482, Aug. 2013.


Abstract Views: 461
PDF Downloads: 166

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share

Most read articles by the same author(s)