Causes of Change Orders in Construction Projects
Change orders are usually issued to cover variations in the scope of work, material quantities, design errors, and unit rate changes. This study discusses variations in public construction projects in Saudi Arabia by investigating their causes, studying their effects on the project, identifying the beneficial parties, and suggesting remedies to alleviate the related problems. Tasks included conducting a field survey via a questionnaire. It was determined that the top five causes of change orders from contractors’ view are: owner’s additional works, errors, and omissions in design, lack of coordination between construction parties, defective workmanship, and owner financial difficulties.
Keywords:change orders, variation orders, construction, contractors, consultants
N. A. Kartam, S. A. Kartam, “Risk and its management in the Kuwaiti construction industry: a contractors’ perspective”, International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 19, No. 6, pp. 325-335, 2001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0263-7863(00)00014-4
N. A. W. A. Zawawi, N. F. I. N. Azman, S. Kamar, M. Shamil, “Sustainable construction practice: a review of change orders (CO) in construction projects”, International Conference on Environment, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, December 13-15, 2010
Z. Osman, A. Omran, C. K. Foo, “The potential effects of variation orders in construction projects”, Journal of Engineering, Vol. 7, pp. 141–152, 2009
I. Rashid, M. Elmikawi, A. Saleh, “The impact of change orders on construction projects sports facilities case study”, Journal of American Science, Vol. 8, No. 8, pp. 628-631, 2012
N. T. I. Homaid, A. I. Eldosouky, M. A. Al-Ghamdi, “Change orders in Saudi linear construction projects”, Emirates Journal for Engineering Research, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 33-42, 2011
P. F. Kaming, P. O. Olomlaiye, G. D. Holt, F. C. Harris, “Factors influencing construction time and cost overruns on high-rise projects in Indonesia”, Construction Management and Economics, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 83–94, 1997 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/014461997373132
D. W. M. Chan, M. M. Kumaraswamy, “A comparative study of causes of time overruns in Hong Kong construction projects”, International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 55-63, 1997 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0263-7863(96)00039-7
A. H. Al-Momani, “Construction delay: a quantitative analysis”, International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 51-59, 2000 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0263-7863(98)00060-X
H. Goudreau, “The five key elements of a construction contract—Forget them and you are in trouble”, available at: www.hgassociates.com/articlecontracts.html, 2001
A. M. Odeh, H. T. Battaineh, “Causes of construction delay: traditional contracts”, International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 67-73, 2002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0263-7863(00)00037-5
Z. A. Memon, “Remedial measure for delays at construction stage”, Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 9–20, 2004
N. K. Acharya, Y. D. Lee, H. M. Im, “Conflicting factors in construction projects: Korean perspective”, Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, Vol. 13, No. 6, pp. 543–566, 2006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09699980610712364
M. Sambasivan, Y. W. Soon, “Causes and effects of delays in Malaysian construction industry”, International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 25, No. 5, pp. 517–526, 2007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2006.11.007
C. O. Arun, B. N. Rao, “Knowledge based decision support tool for duration and cost overrun analysis of highway construction projects”, Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India), Part AG, Vol. 88, pp. 27–33, 2007
S. A. Assaf, S. Al-Hejji, “Causes of delay in large construction projects”, International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 24, pp. 349–357, 2006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2005.11.010
C. Wu, T. Hsieh, W. Cheng, “Statistical Analysis of Causes for Design Change in Highway Construction in Taiwan”, International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 23, No. 7, pp. 554-563, 2005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2004.07.010
J. H. Chen, S. C. Hsu, “Hybrid ANN-CBR model for disputed change orders in construction projects”, Automation in Construction, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 56-64, 2007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2007.03.003
A. S. Alnuaimi, R. A. Taha, M. Al-Mohsin, A. S. Al-Harthi, “Causes, effects, benefits, and remedies of change orders on public construction projects in Oman”, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 136, No. 5, pp. 615-622, 2010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000154
A. Alaryan, E. Beltagi, A. Elshahat, M. Dawood, “Causes and effects of change orders on construction projects in Kuwait”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol. 4, No. 7 (Version 2), pp. 1-8, 2014
S. Ahmed, A. H. Memon, N. A. Memon, A. N. Laghari, M. A. Akhund, H. U. Imad, “Common factors of cost escalation in construction industry of Pakistan”, Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 8, No. 6, pp. 3508-3511, 2018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2278
F. A. Soomro, M. J. Memon, A. F. Chandio, S. Sohu, R. Soomro, “Causes of time overrun in construction of building projects in Pakistan”, Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 3762-3764, 2019 DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2449
I. Mahamid, A. Bruland, N. M. Dmaidi, “Causes of delay in road construction projects”, Journal of Management in Engineering, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 300-310, 2012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.0000096
D. L. Harnett, J. Murphy, Introductory statistical analysis, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1975
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 1304
PDF Downloads: 610
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.