Causes of Change Orders in Construction Projects

Authors

  • W. M. A. Khalifa Civil Engineering Department, Hail University, Saudi Arabia | Fayoum University, Egypt http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8630-4301
  • I. Mahamid Civil Engineering Department, Prince Mugrin University, Saudi Arabia
Volume: 9 | Issue: 6 | Pages: 4956-4961 | December 2019 | https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3168

Abstract

Change orders are usually issued to cover variations in the scope of work, material quantities, design errors, and unit rate changes. This study discusses variations in public construction projects in Saudi Arabia by investigating their causes, studying their effects on the project, identifying the beneficial parties, and suggesting remedies to alleviate the related problems. Tasks included conducting a field survey via a questionnaire. It was determined that the top five causes of change orders from contractors’ view are: owner’s additional works, errors, and omissions in design, lack of coordination between construction parties, defective workmanship, and owner financial difficulties.

Keywords:

change orders, variation orders, construction, contractors, consultants

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

N. A. Kartam, S. A. Kartam, “Risk and its management in the Kuwaiti construction industry: a contractors’ perspective”, International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 19, No. 6, pp. 325-335, 2001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0263-7863(00)00014-4

N. A. W. A. Zawawi, N. F. I. N. Azman, S. Kamar, M. Shamil, “Sustainable construction practice: a review of change orders (CO) in construction projects”, International Conference on Environment, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, December 13-15, 2010

Z. Osman, A. Omran, C. K. Foo, “The potential effects of variation orders in construction projects”, Journal of Engineering, Vol. 7, pp. 141–152, 2009

I. Rashid, M. Elmikawi, A. Saleh, “The impact of change orders on construction projects sports facilities case study”, Journal of American Science, Vol. 8, No. 8, pp. 628-631, 2012

N. T. I. Homaid, A. I. Eldosouky, M. A. Al-Ghamdi, “Change orders in Saudi linear construction projects”, Emirates Journal for Engineering Research, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 33-42, 2011

P. F. Kaming, P. O. Olomlaiye, G. D. Holt, F. C. Harris, “Factors influencing construction time and cost overruns on high-rise projects in Indonesia”, Construction Management and Economics, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 83–94, 1997 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/014461997373132

D. W. M. Chan, M. M. Kumaraswamy, “A comparative study of causes of time overruns in Hong Kong construction projects”, International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 55-63, 1997 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0263-7863(96)00039-7

A. H. Al-Momani, “Construction delay: a quantitative analysis”, International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 51-59, 2000 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0263-7863(98)00060-X

H. Goudreau, “The five key elements of a construction contract—Forget them and you are in trouble”, available at: www.hgassociates.com/articlecontracts.html, 2001

A. M. Odeh, H. T. Battaineh, “Causes of construction delay: traditional contracts”, International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 67-73, 2002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0263-7863(00)00037-5

Z. A. Memon, “Remedial measure for delays at construction stage”, Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 9–20, 2004

N. K. Acharya, Y. D. Lee, H. M. Im, “Conflicting factors in construction projects: Korean perspective”, Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, Vol. 13, No. 6, pp. 543–566, 2006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09699980610712364

M. Sambasivan, Y. W. Soon, “Causes and effects of delays in Malaysian construction industry”, International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 25, No. 5, pp. 517–526, 2007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2006.11.007

C. O. Arun, B. N. Rao, “Knowledge based decision support tool for duration and cost overrun analysis of highway construction projects”, Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India), Part AG, Vol. 88, pp. 27–33, 2007

S. A. Assaf, S. Al-Hejji, “Causes of delay in large construction projects”, International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 24, pp. 349–357, 2006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2005.11.010

C. Wu, T. Hsieh, W. Cheng, “Statistical Analysis of Causes for Design Change in Highway Construction in Taiwan”, International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 23, No. 7, pp. 554-563, 2005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2004.07.010

J. H. Chen, S. C. Hsu, “Hybrid ANN-CBR model for disputed change orders in construction projects”, Automation in Construction, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 56-64, 2007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2007.03.003

A. S. Alnuaimi, R. A. Taha, M. Al-Mohsin, A. S. Al-Harthi, “Causes, effects, benefits, and remedies of change orders on public construction projects in Oman”, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 136, No. 5, pp. 615-622, 2010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000154

A. Alaryan, E. Beltagi, A. Elshahat, M. Dawood, “Causes and effects of change orders on construction projects in Kuwait”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol. 4, No. 7 (Version 2), pp. 1-8, 2014

S. Ahmed, A. H. Memon, N. A. Memon, A. N. Laghari, M. A. Akhund, H. U. Imad, “Common factors of cost escalation in construction industry of Pakistan”, Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 8, No. 6, pp. 3508-3511, 2018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2278

F. A. Soomro, M. J. Memon, A. F. Chandio, S. Sohu, R. Soomro, “Causes of time overrun in construction of building projects in Pakistan”, Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 3762-3764, 2019 DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2449

I. Mahamid, A. Bruland, N. M. Dmaidi, “Causes of delay in road construction projects”, Journal of Management in Engineering, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 300-310, 2012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.0000096

D. L. Harnett, J. Murphy, Introductory statistical analysis, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1975

Downloads

How to Cite

[1]
W. M. A. Khalifa and I. Mahamid, “Causes of Change Orders in Construction Projects”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 4956–4961, Dec. 2019.

Metrics

Abstract Views: 909
PDF Downloads: 449

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share

Most read articles by the same author(s)