Experimental Study on the Impact of Weather Conditions on Wide Code Division Multiple Access Signals in Nigeria
In cellular network activities, before a site is integrated it is expected that each cell of the site meets the Nigerian Communication Commission (NCC) standard of ≥98% for both service accessibility and call completion rate which in turn depicts a ≤2% in both blocked call rate (BCR) and dropped call rate (DCR). It is suggested that weather conditions have a very strong negative effect on the performance of wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) network as it could lead to signal attenuation or change the polarization. In this paper, we study the impact of weather conditions on WCDMA network in Nigeria. To achieve this, network samples (log-files) were collected weekly during a driving test in Enugu State Nigeria for a period of five years for both rainy and dry seasons, in which blocked and dropped calls were extracted. Results show that during adverse weather conditions, BCR and DCR rise greater than 8% and 4% respectively. Although with a slight relationship between the weather conditions, the weather condition during the dry season has a better-blocked call rate of 8.76% in comparison with the rainy season with 12.89%. Calls tend to drop more during the dry season. From the outcome of the experiment, a model was developed for predicting an unknown network call statistics variables.
Keywords:blocked call, cellular, dropped call, dry season, rainy season, weather, WCDMA
T. S. Dalip, V. Kumar, “Effect of Environmental Parameters on GSM and GPS”, Indian Journal for Science and Technology. Vol. 7, No. 8, pp. 1183-1188, 2014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2014/v7i8.6
S. H. Fang, Y. S Yang, “The impact of weather condition on Radio-Based Distance Estimation: A case study in GSM Network with Mobile Measurement”, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 65, No. 8, pp. 6444-6453, 2015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TVT.2015.2479591
M. S. Yadnav, I. W. Sudiartha, “Simulation of broadcast level signal mobile station 3G Network rain condition”, Asia Pacific Conference on Multimedia and Broadcasting, Bali, Indonesia, November 17-19, 2016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/APMediaCast.2016.7878166
J. Luomal, I. Hakala, “Effects of Temperature and Humidity on Radio Signal Strength in Outdoor Wireless Sensor Networks”, Computer Science and Information Systems, Vol. 5, pp. 1247-1255, 2015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.15439/2015F241
M. Voznak, J. Rozhon, “Influence of Atmospheric Parameters on Speech Quality in GSM/UMTS”, International Journal of Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences, Vol. 6, pp. 575-582, 2012
J. Rozhon, P. Blaha, M. Voznak, J, Skapa, “The Weather Impact on Speech Quality in GSM Network”, in: Computer Networks, Communications in Computer and Information Science, Vol. 291 Springer, 2014
M. C. Kestwal, S. Joshi, L. S. Garia, “Prediction of Rain Attenuation and Impact of Rain in Wave Propagation at Microwave Frequency for Tropical Region”, International Journal of Microwave Science and Technology, Vol. 2014, Article ID 958498, 2014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/958498
S. Sabu, S. Renjmol, D. Abhiram, B Premlet, “Effect of rainfall on cellular signal strength: A study on the variation of RSSI at user end of smartphone during rainfall 2017 IEEE Region 10 Symposium, Cochin, India, July 14-16, 2014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TENCONSpring.2017.8070024
B. Fong, P. B. Rapaiic, G. Y. Hong, “Effects of rain attenuation on wireless transmission of frame relay traffic”, The 8th International Conference on Communication Systems, Singapore, November 28, 2002
J. Skapa, M. Dvorsky, L. Michalek, R. Sebesta, P. Blaha, “K-mean clustering and correlation analysis in recognition of weather impact on radio signal”, 35th International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing, Prague, Czech Republic, July 3-4, 2012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TSP.2012.6256306
L. Ali, I. Alam, A. A. S. Syed, M. Yaqoob, “Various Meterological Parameters Effect on GSM Radio Signal Propagation for a Moderate Area”, 2017 International Conference on Frontiers of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan, December 18-20, 2017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/FIT.2017.00028
P. Blaha, J. Rozhon, M. Voznak, J. Skapa, “Correlation between Speech Quality and Weather”, in: Soft Computing Models in Industrial and Environmental Applications. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, Vol. 188, Springer, 2014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-32922-7_32
L. A. R. da Silva Mello, E. Costa, R. S. L. de Souza, “Rain attenuation measurements at 15 and 18 GHz”, Electronics Letters, Vol. 38, No. 4, pp. 197-198, 2015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1049/el:20020105
C. Li, X. Luo, C. Zhang, X. Wang, “Sunny, Rainy, and Cloudy with a Chance of Mobile Promotion Effectiveness”, Marketing Science, Vol. 36, No. 5, pp. 762-779, 2017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1287/mksc.2017.1044
D. D. Dajah, N. Parfait, “A Consideration of Propagation Loss Models for GSM during Harmattan in N’djamena (Chad)”, International Journal of Computing and ICT Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 43-48, 2010
N. H. Sabri, R. Umar, M. M. Shafie, S. N. A. S. Zafar, R. Mat, A. Sabri, Z. A. Ibrahim, “Correlation Analysis of Tropical Rainforest Climate Effect on Radio Signal Strength at KUSZA Observatory, Terengganu”, Advanced Science Letters, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 1268-1271, 2015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1166/asl.2017.8350
A. F. Ismail, M. R. Islam, J. Din, A. R. Tharek, N. L. I. Jamaludin, “Investigation of rain fading on a 26GHz link in tropical climate”, 6th International Conference on Telecommunication Systems, Services, and Applications, Bali, Indonesia, October 20-12, 2011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TSSA.2011.6095420
N. C. Eli-Chukwu, G. N. Onoh, “Improving Service Accessibility (CSSR) In GSM Network using an Intelligent Agent-Based Approach”, International Journal of Computer Engineering in Research Trends, Vol. 4, No. 11, pp. 478-486, 2017
P. K. Sahu, S. R. Pal, A. K. Das, Estimation and Inferential Statistics, Springer, 2015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-81-322-2514-0
M. R. Spiegel, L. J. Stephens, Theory and Problems of Statistics, McGraw-Hill, 1999
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 342
PDF Downloads: 252
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.