Monitoring Leachate Migration in Compacted Soil Using Digital Image Technique

Y. B. Yamusa, R. Sa’ari, K. Ahmad, N. Alias, M. Mustaffar, L. K. Foong


As leachate has been a source of groundwater contamination worldwide, this paper examines the phenomenon of leachate migration on different gradations of compacted laterite soil used as sanitary landfill liners. Three different soil gradations (30%, 40% and 50% with respect to fines content) used in this study were compacted in circular acrylic columns to provide a clear visualization of leachate migration into the soils. Digital image technique was used in capturing photos at successive time intervals to monitor the leachate migration. The captured digital images were fed into Matlab and converted into hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) format. Surfer software then read the HSI and generated 2D contour plots. The results of the experiments showed that the leachate moves downward faster in the soil gradation with the least fines content. Hydraulic conductivity values decrease with increase in time duration and equally with increase in fines content. The hydraulic conductivities of the leachate for 30%, 40% and 50% fines were 3.64×10-9m/s, 2.40×10-9m/s, and 1.24×10-9m/s respectively. This reveals that for tropical laterite soils, gradation containing 50% fines content provides better hydraulic conductivity. The use of noninvasive digital image technique can enable designers/engineers to monitor and visualize the leachate migration in compacted soils in waste containment application systems.


digital image analysis; monitoring leachate migration; soil gradation; groundwater protection; sanitary landfill

Full Text:



A. A. Bello, “Hydraulic conductivity of three compacted reddish brown tropical soils”, KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 17, No. 5, pp. 939-948, 2013

H. A. Arafat, A. J. Bakel, A. K. Dilger, K. L. Nash, P. G. Rickert, G. F. Vandegrift, “Reclamation of contaminated groundwater using cooking oils in a novel, eco-friendly and high-efficiency solvent extraction process”, Desalination, Vol. 321, pp. 9-21, 2013

P. Rushbrook, M. Pugh, Solid Waste Landfills in Middle-and Lower-Income Countries: A Technical Guide to Planning, Design, and Operation, World Bank Tecnhical Paper 426, The World Bank, Washington, DC, USA, 1999

P. Amritha, P. Anilkumar, “Sustainable Solid Waste Management through Landscaped Landfills”, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 29, pp. 1-8, 2016

K. Parameswari, T. Padmini, B. Mudgal, “Assessment of Soil Contamination around Municipal Solid Waste Dumpsite”, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 8, No. 36, pp. 1-5, 2015

Y. B. Yamusa, N. Z. M. Yunus, K. Ahmad, N. A. Rahman, R. Sa’ari, “Effects of fines content on hydraulic conductivity and morphology of laterite soil as hydraulic barrier”, E3S Web of Conferences, International Conference on Civil & Environmental Engineering, Vol. 34, Article Number 01005, 2018

K. J. Osinubi, A. O. Eberemu, A. O. Bello, A. Adzegah, “Effect of fines content on the engineering properties of reconstituted lateritic soils in waste containment application”, Nigerian Journal of Technology, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 277-287, 2012

USEPA, Solid Waste Disposal Facility Criteria: Technical Manual. EPA 530-R-93-017, United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1993

H. M. A. Rashid, J. A. D. K. Wanigarathna, L. C. Kurukulasuriya, N. H. Priyankara, A. M. N. Alagiyawanna, T. Saito, K. Kawamoto, “Characterization of locally available soil as a liner material for solid waste landfills in Sri Lanka”, Environmental Earth Sciences, Vol. 76, No. 11, pp. 396, 2017

Y. B. Yamusa, K. Ahmad, N. A. Rahman, “Hydraulic Conductivity and Volumetric Shrinkage Properties Review on Gradation Effect of Compacted Laterite Soil Liner”, Malaysian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 153-164, 2017

D. E. Daniel, Geotechnical Practice for Waste Disposal, Springer Science & Business Media, 2012

Y. B. Yamusa, K. Ahmad, N. A. Rahman, “Gradation Effect Review on Hydraulic Conductivity and Shear Strength Properties of Compacted Laterite Soil Liner”, 11th International Civil Engineering Postgraduate Conference - The 1st International Symposium on Expertise of Engineering Design, Malaysia, September 26-27, 2016

K. J. Osinubi, G. Moses, F. O. P. Oriola, A. S. Liman, “Influence of Molding Water Content on Shear Strength Characteristic of Compacted Cement Kiln Dust Treated Lateritic Soils for Liners and Covers”, Nigerian Journal of Technology, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 266, 2015

D. E. Daniel, Y. K. Wu, “Compacted clay liners and covers for arid sites”, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 119, No. 2, pp. 223-237, 1993

A. O. Eberemu, “Desiccation Induced Shrinkage of Compacted Tropical Clay Treated with Rice Husk Ash”, International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa, Vol. 6, pp. 45-64, 2011

K. J. Osinubi, A. O. Eberemu, “Desiccation Induced Shrinkage of Compacted Lateritic Soil Treated with Blast Furnace Slag”, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Vol. 28, No. 5, pp. 537-547, 2010

K. J. Osinubi, C. M. O. Nwaiwu, “Desiccation-induced Shrinkage in Compacted Lateritic Soils”, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Vol. 26, No. 5, pp. 603-611, 2008

Y. B. Yamusa, A. Kamarudin, A. R. Norhan, R. Sa’ari, N. Z. Yunus, A. Rashid, “Volumetric Shrinkage of Compacted Soil Liner for Sustainable Waste Landfill”, Chemical Engineering Transactions, Vol. 63, pp. 613-618, 2018

T. M. Johnson, K. Cartwright, R. M. Schuller, “Monitoring of Leachate Migration in the Unsaturated Zone in the Vicinity of Sanitary Landfills”, Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 55-63, 1981

C. W. Fetter, T. Boving, D. Kreamer, Contaminant Hydrogeology, Waveland Press, 2017

W. A. Take, “Thirty-Sixth Canadian Geotechnical Colloquium: Advances in visualization of geotechnical processes through digital image correlation”, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 52, No. 9, pp. 1199-1220, 2015

M. Y. Alaziaza, S. K. Ngien, M. M. Bob, S. A. Kamaruddin, W. M. F. Ishak, “Investigation of Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid Migration Single and Double-Porosity Soil Using Light Transmission Visualization Method (LTV)”, MATEC Web of Conferences, Vol. 47, Article Number 03023, 2016

M. Y. Alazaiza, S. K. Ngien, M. M. Bob, S. A. Kamaruddin, W. M. F. Ishak, “Assessment of the behaviour of soil structure in double-porosity kaolin media using light transmission visualization (LTV) method”, International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 316-320, 2017

M. Y. Alazaiza, S. K. Ngien, M. M. Bob, S. A. Kamaruddin, W. M. F. Ishak, “Influence of Macro-pores on DNAPL Migration in Double-Porosity Soil Using Light Transmission Visualization Method”, Transport in Porous Media, Vol. 117, No. 1, pp.103-123, 2017

M. Y. Alazaiza, S. K. Ngien, M. M. Bob, S. A. Kamaruddin, W. M. F. Ishak, “Application of Light Reflection Method to Observe DNAPL Movement in Different Soil Media”, The National Conference for Postgraduate Research, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Pahang, Malaysia, September 24-25, 2016

L. K. Foong, N. A. Rahman, M. Z. Ramli, “A Laboratory study of vibration effect for deformable double-porosity soil with different moisture content”, Malaysian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 207-222, 2016

R. Sa’ari, N. H. A. Latiff, N. A. Rahman, Z. M. Yusof, M. Mustaffar, M. A. Hezmi, N. S. Kong, S. A. Kamaruddin, “Application of digital image processing technique in monitoring LNAPL migration in double porosity soil column”, Jurnal Teknologi, Vol. 72, No. 3, pp. 23-29, 2015

S. K. Ngien, N. A. Rahman, M. M. Bob, K. Ahmad, R. Sa’ari, R. W. Lewis, “Observation of light non-aqueous phase liquid migration in aggregated soil using image analysis”, Transport in Porous Media, Vol. 92, No. 1, pp. 83-100, 2012

S. A. Kamaruddin, W. N. A. Sulaiman, M. P. Zakaria, R. Othman, N. A. Rahman, “Laboratory simulation of LNAPL spills and remediation in unsaturated porous media using the image analysis technique: a review”, National Postgraduate Conference (NPC), Malaysia, September 19-20, 2011

S. A. Kamarudin, W. N. A. Sulaiman, N. A. Rahman, M. P. Zakaria, M. Mustaffar, R. Sa’ari, “A review of laboratory and numerical simulations of hydrocarbons migrations in subsurface environments”, Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 191-214, 2011

BSI, Methods of Testing Soil for Civil Engineering Purposes (BS 1377:Part 1-9), British Standards Institute, London, 1990

D. B. Stephens, L. M. Coons, “Landfill performance assessment at a semiarid site: Modeling and validation”, Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 101-109, 1994

G. Allison, M. Hughes, “The use of environmental chloride and tritium to estimate total recharge to an unconfined aquifer”, Soil Research, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 181-195, 1978

H. Y. Jo, C. H. Benson, C. D. Shackelford, J. M. Lee, T. B. Edil, “Long-term hydraulic conductivity of a geosynthetic clay liner permeated with inorganic salt solutions”, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 131, No. 4, pp. 405-417, 2005

A. A. Bello, K. J. Osinubi, “Attenuative capacity of compacted abandoned dumpsite soils”, Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 16, pp. 71-91, 2011

P. Guo, “Dependency of tortuosity and permeability of porous media on directional distribution of pore voids”, Transport in Porous Media, Vol. 95, No. 2, pp. 285-303, 2012

J. K. Mitchell, M. Jaber, “Factors controlling the long-term properties of clay liners”, in: Waste Containment Systems: Construction, Regulation, and Performance, pp. 84-105, ASCE, 1990

B. Punmia, A. K. Jain, Soil Mechanics and Foundations, Firewall Media, 2005

eISSN: 1792-8036     pISSN: 2241-4487