Impact of a Single Spoiler on Scouring Depth Status Beneath a River Crossing Inclined Pipeline
Deep river crossing pipelines utilized to carry fluids are often placed upon the sand bed. Placement of pipe on the non-smooth bed would result in the production of some local gaps beneath the pipe. Asymmetric scouring is one of the main reasons for pipe underwater failures which are significant in pipeline management. So, in designing pipelines, knowing the interaction between pipelines and bed, and predicting the scour depth with respect to the pipe distance from the bed is significant to ensure that the pipe will finally deposit on the bed. Numerical models have been developed for predicting the balance depth of scouring beneath the pipelines. In this paper, the impact of pipe orientation on maximum scour depth beneath the pipelines is investigated. To do this, a pipe is modeled with various angles with the flow. To manage the local scouring, some spoilers are placed and modeled upon some pipes too. Also, in order to know the effects of placement of a pipe at various distances from the bed, the impact of placement of each pipe at a distance of 0.2D, 0.4D and 0.6D is investigated as well. To model the pipe with and without a spoiler, the finite element model Flow-3D is utilized and the results show good accordance with previous experimental studies and proof the current model’s precision in predicting the scour depth. Results show that in the placement of the pipe in angles not investigated before and also with the installing of a spoiler, the scour process has a reverse ratio with the distance which would result in full deposition of the pipe on the bed. The least scour depth belongs to the condition in which the pipe has a 130° angle with the side wall.
Keywords:Flow-3D, pipeline, pipe orientation, pipe with spoiler, scouring
H. M. Azamathulla, M. A. M. Yusoff, Z. A Hasan, “Scour below submerged skewed pipeline”, Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 509, pp. 615-620, 2014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.11.058
E. W. Bijker, W. Leeuwestein, “Interaction between pipelines and the seabed under influence of waves and currents”, in: Seabed Mechanics, Springer, Dordrecht, 1984 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-4958-4_28
C. H. Hulsbergen, R. Bijker, “Effect of spoilers on submarine pipeline stability”, Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, USA, May 1-4, 1989 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4043/6154-MS
Y. Mao, The Interaction between a Pipeline and an Erodible Bed, PhD Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1986
J. A. Maza, Introduction to river engineering, Advanced Course on Water Resources Management, Universita Italiana per Stranieri, 1987
Y. M. Chiew, “Effect of spoilers on scour at submarine pipelines”, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 118, No. 9, pp. 1311-1317, 1992 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(1992)118:9(1311)
Y. M. Chiew, “Effect of spoilers on wave-induced scour at submarine pipelines”, Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, Vol. 119, No. 4, pp. 417-428, 1993 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-950X(1993)119:4(417)
A. T. Moncada-M., J. Aguirre-Pe, “Scour below pipeline in river crossings”, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 125, No. 9, pp. 953-958, 1999 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(1999)125:9(953)
B. Brors, “Numerical modeling of flow and scour at pipelines”, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 125, No. 5, pp. 511-523, 1999 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(1999)125:5(511)
L. Cheng, L. W. Chew, “Modeling of flow around a near-bed pipeline with a spoiler”, Ocean Engineering, Vol. 30, pp. 1595-1611, 2003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0029-8018(02)00148-8
D. Liang, L Cheng, F. Li, “Numerical modeling of flow and scour below a pipeline in currents: Part II. Scour simulation”, Coastal Engineering, Vol. 52, pp. 43-62, 2005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2004.09.001
D. F. Liang, L. Cheng, “Numerical modeling of flow and scour below a pipeline in currents: Part I, Flow simulation”, Coastal Engineering, Vol. 52, pp.25-42, 2005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2004.09.002
Y. Zhang, M. Zhao, K. C. S. Kwok, M. M. Liu, “Computational fluid dynamics–discrete element method analysis of the onset of scour around subsea pipelines”, Applied Mathematical Modelling, Vol. 39, pp. 7611-7619, 2015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2015.03.058
J. P. Zhao, X. C. Wang, “CFD numerical simulation of the submarine pipeline with spoiler”, Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Vol. 131, pp. 03601.1-03601.5, 2009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3124127
H. Zhu, X. Qi, P. Lin, Y. Yang, “Numerical simulation of flow around a submarine pipe with a spoiler and current-induced scour beneath the pipe”, Applied Ocean Research, Vol.41, pp. 87-100, 2013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apor.2013.03.005
L. Long, D. Dongshan, M. Xiao, “Research on inhibition effect of vortex-induced vibration of submarine pipeline with horizontal spoilers”, The Open Petroleum Engineering Journal, Vol. 7, pp. 92-98, 2014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/1874834101407010092
H. Smith, D. Foster, “Modeling of flow around a cylinder over a scoured bed”, Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, Vol. 131, No. 1, pp. 14-24, 2005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-950X(2005)131:1(14)
Flow Science, FLOW-3D User Manual 11.0.3, Flow Science, 2014
D. C. Wilcox, “Reassessment of the scale-determinant equation for advanced turbulence models”, AIAA Journal, Vol. 26, pp. 1299-1310, 1988 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2514/3.10041
D. C. Wilcox, “Formulation of the k–ω turbulence model revisited”, AIAA Journal, Vol. 46, pp. 2823-2838, 2008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2514/1.36541
F. P. Gao, B. Yang, Y. X. Wu, S. M. Yan, “Steady current induced seabed scour around a vibrating pipeline”, Applied Ocean Research Vol. 28, No. 5, pp. 291-298, 2006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apor.2007.01.004
Q. Deng, L. Li, Y. Zhang, “An analysis of river washout influence and protective measures of long-distance gas and oil pipelines”, International Conference on Pipelines and Trenchless Technology, Wuhan, China, October 19-22, 2012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784412619.131
X. Ruan, B. Shi, L. Yang, Z. Zhang, “An experimental study on scour around the submarine pipeline with spoilers under wave conditions”, IEEE 2011 International Conference on Remote Sensing, Environment and Transportation Engineering, Nanjing, China, June 24-26, 2011
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 433
PDF Downloads: 191
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.