Accuracy of Bit Error Probability for W-CDMA System Using Code Tree


  • A. H. Ibrahim Department of Electrical Engineering, Qassim University, College of Engineering, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia
Volume: 8 | Issue: 2 | Pages: 2834-2838 | April 2018 |


W-CDMA is radio access utilized for 3G cell frameworks. A code tree allocation scheme is one of the most explored channelization techniques, used to improve system performance and capacity through adjustable data rates. This work investigates the accuracy of bit error probability for W-CDMA system using code tree orthogonal variable spreading factor (OVSF) codes, compared to pseudo-noise (PN) codes under various noise conditions, such as additive white Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and Random Noise (RN). Results are carried out theoretically and by computer simulation. The simulation includes the scenario of simple model representation for W-CDMA system. It was concluded that, the system has better performance using OVSF compared with PN code under different noisy channels.


W-CDMA, OVSF code, PN code, AWGN, RN, bit error probability (BEP)


Download data is not yet available.


P. Kundur, J. Paserba, V. Ajjarapu, G. Andersson, A. Bose, C. Canizares, N. Hatziargyriou, D. Hill, A. Stankovic, C. Taylor, T. Van Cutsem, V. Vittal, “Definition and classification of power system stability IEEE/CIGRE joint task force on stability terms and definitions”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 1387-1401, 2004 DOI:

J. Hu, J. Cao, J. M. Guerrero, T. Yong, J. Yu, “Improving Frequency Stability Based on Distributed Control of Multiple Load Aggregators”, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 1553-1567, 2017 DOI:

N. Nguyen, J. Mitra, “Reliability of Power System with High Wind Penetration Under Frequency Stability Constraint”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 985-994, 2018 DOI:

N. Hatziargyriou, E. Karapidakis, D. Hatzifotis, “Frequency stability of power systems in large islands with wind power penetration”, Bulk Power System Dynamics Control Symposium-IV, Restructuring, Vol. 102, 1998

M. Oluic, M. Ghandhari, M. Berggren, “Methodology for Rotor Angle Transient Stability Assessment in Parameter Space”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 1202-1211, 2017 DOI:

L. Meegahapola, T. Littler, “Characterisation of large disturbance rotor angle and voltage stability in interconnected power networks with distributed wind generation”, IET Renewable Power Generation, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 272-283, 2015 DOI:

E. Vittal, M. O’Malley, A Keane, “Rotor Angle Stability With High Penetrations of Wind Generation”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 353-362, 2012 DOI:

C. W. Taylor, Power System Voltage Stability, McGraw-Hill Inc., 1994

B. Leonardi, V. Ajjarapu, “Development of multilinear regression models for online voltage stability margin estimation”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 374-383, 2011 DOI:

D. Q. Zhou, U. D. Annakkage, A. D. Rajapakse, “Online monitoring of voltage stability margin using an artificial neural network”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 1566-1574, 2010 DOI:

T. V. Cutsem, C. Vournas, Voltage Stability of Electric Power Systems, Springer, 1998

J. A. de Leon, C. W. Taylor, “Understanding and solving shortterm voltage stability problems”, IEEE PES Summer Meeting, Chicago, USA, pp. 745-752, July 21-25, 2002

Y. Xu, R. Zhang, J. Zhao, Z. Y. Dong, D. Wang, H. Yang, K. P. Wong, “Assessing Short-Term Voltage Stability of Electric Power Systems by a Hierarchical Intelligent System”, IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems, Vol. 27, No. 8, pp. 1686-1696, 2016 DOI:

E. Vittal, M. O’Malley, A. Keane, “A steady-state voltage stability analysis of power systems with high penetrations of wind”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 433-442, 2010 DOI:

H. K. Clark, New challenge: Voltage stability, IEEE Power Engineering Review, Vol. 19, pp. 30–37, 1990

R. K. Gupta, Z. A. Alaywan, R. B. Stuart, T. A. Reece, “Steady state voltage instability operations perspective”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 1345-1354, 1990 DOI:

M. H. Haque, “Determination of Steady-State Voltage Stability Limit Using P-Q Curves”, IEEE Power Engineering Review, Vol. 22, pp. 71-72, 2002 DOI:

P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control, McGraw-Hill Inc., 1994

R. Toma, M. Gavrilas, “Voltage stability assessment for wind farms integration in electricity grids with and without consideration of voltage dependent loads”, International Conference and Exposition on Electrical and Power Engineering (EPE 2016), Iasi, Romania, pp. 754-759, October 20-22, 2016 DOI:

M. S. Rawat, S. Vadhera, “Analysis of wind power penetration on power system voltage stability”, IEEE 6th International Conference on Power Systems (ICPS), New Delhi, India, March 4-6, 2016 DOI:

V. Balamourougan, T. S. Sidhu, M. S. Sachdev, “Technique for online prediction of voltage collapse, IEE Proceedings - Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Vol. 151, No. 4, pp. 453-460, 2004 DOI:

T. V. Cutsem, C. Vournas, Voltage Stability of Electric Power Systems, Kluwer Academic, 1998 DOI:

M. Glavic, M. Lelic, D. Novosel, E. Heredia, D. Kosterev, “A Simple Computation and Visualization of Voltage Stability Power Margins in Real-Time”, IEEE PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition (T&D), Orlando, USA, May 7-10, 2012 DOI:

Y. Z. Lin, L. B. Shi, L. Z. Yao, Y. X. Ni, S. Y. Qin, R. M. Wang, J. P. Zhang, “An Analytical Solution for Voltage Stability Studies Incorporating Wind Power”, Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 865-876, 2015 DOI:

P. Zhang, L. Min, J. Chen, Measurement Based Voltage Stability Monitoring and Control, U.S. Patent Application No. US 2009/0299664A1, 2009

V. D. Ngo, D. D. Le, K. H. Le, V. K. Pham, A. Berizzi, “A Methodology for Determining Permissible Operating Region of Power Systems According to Conditions of Static Stability Limit”, Energies, Vol. 10, No. 8, pp. 1-15, 2017 DOI:

G. J. Anders, Probability Concepts in Electric Power Systems, Wiley, 1990

K. Krishnamoorthy, Handbook of Statistical Distributions with Applications, CRC Press, 2006 DOI:

D. D. Le, A. Berizzi, C. Bovo, “A probabilistic security assessment approach to power systems with integrated wind resources”, Renewable Energy, Vol. 85, pp. 114-123, 2016 DOI:

J. Machowski, J. W. Bialek, J. R. Bumby, Power System Dynamics and Stability, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 1997

J. E. Gentle, Random Number Generation and Monte Carlo Methods, Springer-Verlag, 2003

G. Marsaglia, “Random Number Generation”, in: A. Ralston, E. D. Reilly, Eds, Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Engineering, Van Nostrand Reinhold, pp. 1260-1264, 1983

A. Dissanayaka, Risk Based Dynamic Security Assessment, Msc Thesis, University of Manitoba, 2010


How to Cite

A. H. Ibrahim, “Accuracy of Bit Error Probability for W-CDMA System Using Code Tree”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 2834–2838, Apr. 2018.


Abstract Views: 515
PDF Downloads: 289

Metrics Information

Most read articles by the same author(s)